An attempt has been made in the present investigation to determine the acute toxicity of hexavalent chromium and its toxicological effects on survival, physiological, hematological and biochemical parameters of the widely consumed Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Short-term acute toxicity tests were performed adopting renewal bioassay technique (USEPA, 1975) over a period of 96 h, using different concentrations of potassium dichromate to the fish and the 96 h LC value was found to be 111.45 mg/l (Cr(+6) as 39.40 mg/l). ANOVA results showed that the normal respiratory activity of the fish was significantly affected and there is a depression in the metabolic rate at the end of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h exposure. The metal also induced significant decrease (p<0.001) in the hematological parameters of the fish like total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin percent and absolute value Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) both at the end of 24h and 96 h exposure indicating anemia. Appreciable decline in the biochemical profiles such as total glycogen, total lipids and total protein contents of the fish was also observed. However, the decrease in protein content was significant only at the end of 96 h. This study reflects the extent of the toxic effects of hexavalent chromium and the metal induced cumulative deleterious effects at various functional levels in the widely consumed freshwater fish, Labeo rohita.
Cyanobacterial toxins have caused human poisoning in the Americas, Europe and Australia. There is accumulating evidence that they are present in treated drinking water supplies when cyanobacterial blooms occur in source waters. With increased population pressure and depleted groundwater reserves, surface water is becoming more used as a raw water source, both from rivers and lakes/reservoirs. Additional nutrients in water which arise from sewage discharge, agricultural run-off or storm water result in overabundance of cyanobacteria, described as a 'water bloom'. The majority of cyanobacterial water-blooms are of toxic species, producing a diversity of toxins. The most important toxins presenting a risk to the human population are the neurotoxic alkaloids (anatoxins and paralytic shellfish poisons), the cyclic peptide hepatotoxins (microcystins) and the cytotoxic alkaloids (cylindrospermopsins). At the present time the only cyanobacteral toxin family that have been internationally assessed for health risk by the WHO are the microcystins, which cause acute liver injury and are active tumour promoters. Based on sub-chronic studies in rodents and pigs, a provisional Guideline Level for drinking water of 1 microg/L of microcystin-LR has been determined. This has been adopted in legislation in countries in Europe, South America and Australasia. This may be revised in the light of future teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The other cyanobacterial toxin which has been proposed for detailed health risk assessment is cylindrospermopsin, a cytotoxic compound which has marked genotoxicity, probable mutagenicity, and is a potential carcinogen. This toxin has caused human poisoning from drinking water, and occurs in water supplies in the USA, Europe, Asia, Australia and South America. An initial health risk assessment is presented with a proposed drinking water Guideline Level of 1 microg/L. There is a need for both increased monitoring data for toxins in drinking water and epidemiological studies on adverse health effects in exposed populations to clarify the extent of the health risk.
This paper surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: ( 1) metals, ( 2) radioisotopes, ( 3) volatile organic compounds, and ( 4) biological contaminants. United States regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications ( e. g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.
Bi(OTf)(3) and SiO2-Bi(OTf)(3) are found to effectively catalyze the Ferrier rearrangement of tri-O-acetyl glycals with different alcohols providing an effective route to 2,3-unsaturated O-glycosides with good anomeric selectivity and good to excellent yields after short reaction times.
Nanotechnology and nanomaterials have become the new frontier world-wide over the past few years and prospects for the production and novel uses of large quantities of carbon nanotubes in particular are becoming an increasing reality. Correspondingly, the potential health risks for these and other nanoparticulate materials have been of considerable concern. Toxicological studies, while sparse, have been concerned with virtually uncharacterized, single wall carbon nanotubes, and the conclusions have been conflicting and uncertain. In this research we performed viability assays on a murine lung macrophage cell line to assess the comparative cytotoxicity of commercial, single wall carbon nanotubes (ropes) and two different multiwall carbon nanotube samples; utilizing chrysotile asbestos nanotubes and black carbon nanoaggregates as toxicity standards. These nanotube materials were completely characterized by transmission electron microscopy and observed to be aggregates ranging from 1 to 2 microm in mean diameter, with closed ends. The cytotoxicity data indicated a strong concentration relationship and toxicity for all the carbon nanotube materials relative to the asbestos nanotubes and black carbon. A commercial multiwall carbon nanotube aggregate exhibiting this significant cell response was observed to be identical in structure to multiwall carbon nanotube aggregates demonstrated to be ubiquitous in the environment, and especially in indoor environments, where natural gas or propane cooking stoves exist. Correspondingly, preliminary epidemiological data, although sparse, indicate a correlation between asthma incidence or classification, and exposure to gas stoves. These results suggest a number of novel epidemiological and etiological avenues for asthma triggers and related respiratory or other environmental health effects, especially since indoor number concentrations for multiwall carbon nanotube aggregates is at least 10 times the outdoor concentration, and virtually all gas combustion processes are variously effective sources. These results also raise concerns for manufactured carbon nanotube aggregates, and related fullerene nanoparticles.
Electrochemical biosensors have superior properties over other existing measurement systems because they can provide rapid, simple and low-cost on-field determination of many biological active species and a number of dangerous pollutants. In our work, we suggested a new heavy metal biosensor based on interaction of heavy metal ions ( Cd2+ and Zn2+) with phytochelatin, which was adsorbed on the surface of the hanging mercury drop electrode, using adsorptive transfer stripping differential pulse voltammetry. In addition, we applied the suggested technique for the determination of heavy metals in a biological sample - human urine and platinum in a pharmaceutical drug. The detection limits ( 3 S/N) of Cd(II), Zn(II) and cis-platin were about 1.0, 13.3 and 1.9 pmole in 5 mu l, respectively. On the basis of the obtained results, we propose that the suggested technique offers simple, rapid, and low-cost detection of heavy metals in environmental, biological and medical samples.
The redox protein and enzyme, such as hemoglobin (Hb), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx), was immobilized on the surface of the carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon (CNT/GC) electrode, respectively. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that the redox protein and enzyme underwent effective and stable direct electron transfer reaction with a pair of nearly symmetrical redox peaks. The formal redox potential, E-0', was almost independent on the scan rates, the average value of E0' for Hb, HRP and GOx was - 0.343 +/- 0.001, - 0.319 +/- 0.002 and - 0.456 +/- 0.0008 V ( vs. SCE, pH 6.9), respectively. The dependence of E0' on the pH solution indicated that the direct electron transfer of Hb and HRP was a one-electron-transfer reaction process coupled with one-proton-transfer, while the GOx was a two-electron-transfer coupled with two-proton-transfer. The apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) was 1.25 +/- 0.25, 2.07 +/- 0.69 and 1.74 +/- 0.42 s(-1) for Hb, HRP and GOx, respectively. The method presented here can be easily extended to immobilize other redox enzymes or proteins and obtain their direct electrochemistry.
The marine environment is a major source for many novel natural compounds. A new yellow pigment has been isolated from the marine bacterium P. tunicata and identified as a new member of the tambjamine class of compounds. The structural identification was achieved by a combination of 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry data.
Scleroglucan is a natural polysaccharide, produced by fungi of the genus Sclerotium, that has been extensively studied for various commercial applications (secondary oil recovery, ceramic glazes, food, paints etc.) and also shows several interesting pharmacological properties. This review focuses its attention on the use of scleroglucan, and some derivatives, in the field of pharmaceutics and in particular for the formulation of modified-release dosage forms. The reported investigations refer mainly to the following topics: natural scleroglucan suitable for the preparation of sustained release tablets and ocular formulations; oxidized and crosslinked scleroglucan used as a matrix for dosage forms sensitive to environmental conditions; co-crosslinked scleroglucan/gellan whose delivery rate can be affected by calcium ions. Furthermore, a novel hydrogel obtained with this polysaccharide and borate ions is described, and the particular structure of this hydrogel network has been interpreted in terms of conformational analysis and molecular dynamics. Profound attention is devoted to the mechanisms involved in drug release from the tested dosage forms that depend, according to the specific preparation, on swelling and/or diffusion. Experimental data are also discussed on the basis of a mathematical approach that allows a better understanding of the behavior of the tested polymeric materials.
5-Furan-2-yl[1,3,4]oxadiazole-2-thiol (Ia) and 5-furan-2-yl-4H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-thiol (Ib) were synthesized from furan-2-carboxylic acid hydrazide. Mannich bases and methyl derivatives were then prepared. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analyses, IR and H-1-NMR spectra. Their thiol-thione tautomeric equilibrium is described.