Energy, entropy and exergy concepts come from thermodynamics and are applicable to all fields of science and engineering. Therefore, this article intends to provide background for better understanding of these concepts and their differences among various classes of life support systems with a diverse coverage. It also covers the basic principles, general definitions and practical applications and implications. Some illustrative examples are presented to highlight the importance of the aspects of energy, entropy and exergy and their roles in thermal engineering.
A series of novel 1-(4-substitutedbenzoyl)-4-(4-chlorobenzhydryl)piperazine derivatives 5a-g was designed by a nucleophilic substitution reaction of 1-(4-chlorobenzhydryl) piperazine with various benzoyl chlorides and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Cytotoxicity of the compounds was demonstrated on cancer cell lines from liver (HUH7, FOCUS, MAHLAVU, HEPG2, HEP3B), breast (MCF7, BT20, T47D, CAMA-1), colon (HCT-116), gastric (KATO-3) and endometrial (MFE-296) cancer cell lines. Time-dependent cytotoxicity analysis of compound 5a indicated the long-term in situ stability of this compound. All compounds showed significant cell growth inhibitory activity on the selected cancer cell lines.
A variety of novel [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine-13-ones (4a-f) and (5b-d) could be obtained via reaction of 9-amino-7-(4 ' -chlorophenyl)-8,9-dihydro-8-imino-6H,7H-benzopyrano[3 ' ,4 ' :5,6]pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-one (3) with a variety of reagents. Pyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-ones 5a, 8a-c and pyrimido[l,6-b][1,2,4]-triazine-3,14-dione (6) were also prepared. The antimicrobial activity of some of the synthesized compounds was tested.
Research into the mode of action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree oil) is briefly reviewed. Its mode of action is interpreted in terms of the membrane-toxicity of its monoterpenoid components and different approaches for determining cell membrane damage are discussed.
A few 4-allyl/amino-5-aryl-1,2,4-triazoles were synthesized and tested for antibacterial and antifungal effects against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. 4-Allyl-5-aryl-1,2,4-triazoles were obtained by the oxidative cyclization of the appropriate 1-substituted-4-allylthiosemicarbazides and 4-amino-5-aryl-1,2,4-triazoles were obtained by cyclization of the potassium salts of appropriately substituted dithiocarbazinic acids with hydrazine hydrate. The new synthesized compounds were characterized using IR, H-1-NMR, C-13-NMR and UV spectral data together with elemental analysis.
Biosensors are sensitive and can be used as disposable sensors for environmental control. These biosensors are based either on inhibition of acyl cholinesterases acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase) by organophosphorus compounds or on inhibition of enzymes phosphatases (acid or alkaline) or on direct detection of organophosphorus compounds by organophosphorus hydrolase. The state-of-the-art of the three types of biosensors will be presented in this paper and a particular development will be done on our work on ENFET (Enzymatic Field Effect Transistor) biosensors.
A carbon dioxide (CO2) sensor is fabricated by depositing a thin layer of a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) - silicon dioxide (SiO2) composite upon a planar inductorcapacitor resonant circuit. By tracking the resonant frequency of the sensor the complex permittivity of the coating material can be determined. It is shown that the permittivity of MWNTs changes linearly in response to CO2 concentration, enabling monitoring of ambient CO2 levels. The passive sensor is remotely monitored with a loop antenna, enabling measurements from within opaque, sealed containers. Experimental results show the response of the sensor is linear, reversible with no hysteresis between increasing and decreasing CO2 concentrations, and with a response time of approximately 45 s. An array of three such sensors, comprised of an uncoated, SiO2 coated, and a MWNT-SiO2 coated sensors is used to self-calibrate the measurement for operation in a variable humidity and temperature environment. Using the sensor array CO2 levels can be measured in a variable humidity and temperature environment to a ± 3% accuracy.
Easy, safe, and effective novel methods for preparing either (diacetoxyiodo)-arenes, ArI(OAc)(2), or iodylarenes, ArIO2, from the corresponding iodoarenes, ArI, using sodium periodate as the oxidant are presented in this paper. In order to obtain 2- and 4-iodylbenzoic acids, the respective sodium salts of 2- and 4-iodobenzoic acids should be used as the starting substrates, because mixtures containing the corresponding iodosyl derivatives as the main products along with the intended iodyl compounds are produced from the free parent acids.
A range of brominated indole derivatives were found in the egg masses of six species of muricid molluscs. Several non-brominated indoles were also present in the eggs of two Mediterranean Muricidae, although these were not found in the Australian species. Tyrindoleninone (3), was the only compound found in all six species and is likely to be responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity of these muricid egg masses [1,2]. These bioactive indoles appear to be characteristic of muricid egg masses and were not found in the egg masses from 17 species in different families of marine molluscs.