The CMS magnetic system consists of a superconducting solenoid coil, 12.5 m long and 6 m free bore diameter, and of an iron flux-return yoke, which includes the central barrel, two end-caps and the ferromagnetic parts of the hadronic forward calorimeter. The magnetic flux density in the center of the solenoid is 4 T. To carry out the magnetic analysis of the CMS magnetic system, several 3D models were developed to perform magnetic field and force calculations using the Vector Fields code TOSCA. The analysis includes a study of the general field behavior, the calculation of the forces on the coil generated by small axial, radial displacements and angular tilts, the calculation of the forces on the ferromagnetic parts, the calculation of the fringe field outside the magnetic system, and a study of the field level in the chimneys for the current leads and the cryogenic lines. A procedure to reconstruct the field inside a cylindrical volume starting from the values of the magnetic flux density on the cylinder surface is considered. Special TOSCA-GEANT interface tools have being developed to input the calculated magnetic field into the detector simulation package.
We have calculated fast direct spectral model fits to two early-time spectra of the Type II plateau SN 1999em, using the SYNOW synthetic spectrum code. The first is an extremely early blue optical spectrum and the second a combined Hubble Space Telescope and optical spectrum obtained one week later. Spectroscopically this supernova appears to be a normal Type II, and these fits are in excellent agreement with the observed spectra. Our direct analysis suggests the presence of enhanced nitrogen. We have further studied these spectra with the full non-LTE general model atmosphere code PHOENIX. While we do not find confirmation for enhanced nitrogen (nor do we rule it out), we do require enhanced helium. An even more intriguing possible line identification is complicated Balmer and He I lines, which we show falls naturally out of the detailed calculations with a shallow density gradient. We also show that very early spectra such as those presented here combined with sophisticated spectral modeling allow an independent estimate of the total reddening to the supernova, since when the spectrum is very blue, dereddening leads to changes in the blue flux that cannot be reproduced by altering the "temperature" of the emitted radiation. These results are extremely encouraging since they imply that detailed modeling of early spectra can shed light on both the abundances and total extinction of SNe II, the latter improving their utility and reliability as distance indicators.
Over the past 10 years Bayesian methods have rapidly grown more popular in many scientific disciplines as several computationally intensive statistical algorithms have become feasible with increased computer power. In this paper we begin with a general description of the Bayesian paradigm for statistical inference and the various state-of-the-art model-fitting techniques that we employ (e.g., the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm). These algorithms are very flexible and can be used to Dt models that account for the highly hierarchical structure inherent in the collection of high-quality spectra and thus can keep pace with the accelerating progress of new space telescope designs. The methods we develop, which will soon be available in the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations (CIAO) software, explicitly model photon arrivals as a Poisson process and thus have no difficulty with high-resolution low-count X-ray and gamma -ray data. We expect these methods to be useful not only for the recently launched Chandra X-Ray Observatory and XMM but also for new generation telescopes such as Constellation X, GLAST, etc. In the context of two examples (quasar S5 0014+813 and hybrid-chromosphere supergiant star alpha TrA), we illustrate a new highly structured model and how Bayesian posterior sampling can be used to compute estimates, error bars, and credible intervals for the various model parameters. Application of our method to the high-energy tail of the ASCA spectrum of alpha TrA confirms that even at a quiescent state, the coronal plasma on this hybrid-chromosphere star is indeed at high temperatures (>10 MK) that normally characterize flaring plasma on the Sun. We are also able to constrain the coronal metallicity and find that although it is subject to large uncertainties, it is consistent with the photospheric measurements.
Continuing previous work, a model independent analysis of the solar neutrino anomaly is performed in terms of neutrino oscillations, allowing a comparison with the predictions of the Standard Solar Model. SMA and LMA solutions emerge also in this case, although somewhat different from the standard ones. The significance of the NC/CC double ratio measurable in SNO is illustrated in this context.
Using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the effects of hierarchical aggregation on the triggering of star formation in galactic-like objects. We include a simple star formation model to transform the cold gas in dense regions into stars. Simulations with different parameters have been performed in order to quantify the dependence of the results on the parameters. We then resort to stellar population synthesis models to trace the color evolution of each object with redshift and in relation to their merger histories. We find that, in a hierarchical clustering scenario, the process of assembling of the structure is one natural mechanism that may trigger star formation. The resulting star formation rate history for each individual galactic object is composed of a continuous one (less than or equal to 3 M-circle dot yr(-1)) and a series of starbursts. We find that even the accretion of a small satellite can be correlated with a stellar burst. Massive mergers are found to be more efficient at transforming gas into stars.
Fuchsian equations provide a way of constructing large classes of spacetimes whose singularities can be described in detail. In some of the applications of this technique only the analytic case could be handled up to now. This paper develops a method of removing the undesirable hypothesis of analyticity. This is applied to the specific case of the Gowdy spacetimes in order to show that analogues of the results known in the analytic case hold in the smooth case. As far as possible the likely strengths and weaknesses of the method, as applied to more general problems, are displayed.
Non-leptonic B(s) decays into CP eigenstates that are caused by b̄ → c̄cs̄ quark-level transitions, such as B(s) → D(s)/ D(s)/ , J / ψ η (') or J / ψ φ, provide a powerful tool to search for 'new physics', as the CP-violating effects in these modes are tiny in the Standard Model. We explore these effects for a particular scenario of new physics, the left-right-symmetric model with spontaneous CP violation. In our analysis, we take into account all presently available experimental constraints on the parameters of this model, i.e. those implied by K- and B-decay observables; we find that CP asymmetries as large as O(40%) may arise in the B(s) channels, whereas the left-right-symmetric model favours a small CP asymmetry in the 'gold-plated' mode B(d) → J / ψ K(s). Such a pattern would be in favour of B-physics experiments at hadron machines, where the B(s) modes are very accessible. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
Presents a method to use linear analysis to capture the frequency coupling of nonlinear and time-varying components. System stability is analyzed by connecting the harmonic transfer functions of the different component models. This facilitates an object-oriented approach to modeling, which supports reuse of models. An analysis of the complete railway system is, of course, difficult. Several locomotives can be moving along the power distribution line at the same time, and depending on the distance between them, the interaction changes. The power consumption also changes, depending on operating modes. During normal operation, energy is consumed from the network, but as modern locomotives use electrical braking, the power flow changes direction during deceleration, and energy is delivered back to the grid. The inverter trains are not passive systems. The converters are controlled with only limited system knowledge (local measurements of currents and voltages), making analysis and control design an even bigger challenge.