Discriminant analysis for two data sets in R with probability densities f and g can be based on the estimation of the set G = x: f(x) ≥ g(x). We consider applications where it is appropriate to assume that the region G has a smooth boundary or belongs to another nonparametric class of sets. In particular, this assumption makes sense if discrimination is used as a data analytic tool. Decision rules based on minimization of empirical risk over the whole class of sets and over sieves are considered. Their rates of convergence are obtained. We show that these rules achieve optimal rates for estimation of G and optimal rates of convergence for Bayes risks. An interesting conclusion is that the optimal rates for Bayes risks can be very fast, in particular, faster than the "parametric" root-n rate. These fast rates cannot be guaranteed for plug-in rules.
Several properties of the cerebral cortex, including its columnar and laminar organization, as well as the topographic organization of cortical areas, can only be properly understood in the context of the intrinsic two-dimensional structure of the cortical surface. In order to study such cortical properties in humans, it is necessary to obtain an accurate and explicit representation of the cortical surface in individual subjects. Here we describe a set of automated procedures for obtaining accurate reconstructions of the cortical surface, which have been applied to data from more than 100 subjects, requiring little or no manual intervention. Automated routines for unfolding and flattening the cortical surface are described in a companion paper. These procedures allow for the routine use of cortical surface-based analysis and visualization methods in functional brain imaging. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
The surface of the human cerebral cortex is a highly folded sheet with the majority of its surface area buried within folds. As such, it is a difficult domain for computational as well as visualization purposes. We have therefore designed a set of procedures for modifying the representation of the cortical surface to (i) inflate it so that activity buried inside sulci may be visualized, (ii) cut and flatten an entire hemisphere, and (iii) transform a hemisphere into a simple parameterizable surface such as a sphere for the purpose of establishing a surface-based coordinate system. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Internet browsers use security protocols to protect sensitive messages. An inductive analysis of TLS (a descendant of SSL 3.0) has been performed using the theorem prover Isabelle. Proofs are based on higher-order logic and make no assumptions concerning beliefs of finiteness. All the obvious security goals can be proved; session resumption appears to be secure even if old session keys are compromised. The proofs suggest minor changes to simplify the analysis. TLS, even at an abstract level, is much more complicated than most protocols verified by researchers. Session keys are negotiated rather than distributed, and the protocol has many optional parts. Netherless, the resources needed to verify TLS are modest: six man-weeks of effort and three minutes of processor time.
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a ubiquitous technique for data analysis and processing, but one which is not based on a probability model. We demonstrate how the principal axes of a set of observed data vectors may be determined through maximum likelihood estimation of parameters in a latent variable model that is closely related to factor analysis. We consider the properties of the associated likelihood function, giving an EM algorithm for estimating the principal subspace iteratively, and discuss, with illustrative examples, the advantages conveyed by this probabilistic approach to PCA.