Carlini et al. (1990) reported the presence of Xenarthra (Mammalia) from the Eocene deposits of Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, based on an ungual phalanx from locality RV 8200. The locality, referred to informally as “mammal site” by Woodburne & Zinsmeister (1984), is located at 64°14′21″S, 56°39′44″W at an elevation of 45 m in the middle levels of the shallow marine La Meseta Formation (TELM 5 of Saddler 1988). Carlini et al. (1990) initially identified the phalanx as a megatherioid sloth (Order Tardigrada). Marenssi et al. (1994) revised its identification to ?Tardigrada or ?Vermilingua, by comparison with a primitive myrmecophagid (Order Vermilingua) from the Lower Miocene of Patagonia, whose ungual phalanges are indistinguishable from those of primitive sloths (Carlini et al. 1992). We report a fragmentary tooth of a member of the Tardigrada (Family incertue sedis) confirming the presence of this group in the Eocene of Antarctica.
The major health problems found in 103 captive lesser anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) and giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), family Myrmecophagidae, are presented and correlated with management. The most common of 200 recorded clinical disorders involved the digestive system (26%), nutritional deficiency (20%), injury (15.5%), respiratory system (10%), skin (7%) and circulatory system (4.5%), but 13% of the cases were inconclusive. Parasites were identified in 48.5% of faecal samples, mainly the eggs of nematodes (40%), of which the commonest were Trichuris spp (28%) and Strongyloides spp (11%); protozoa (16%), of which the commonest were Eimeria spp (10%), Entamoeba spp (5%) and Giardia spp (1%); and cestodes (8%) and acanthocephalids (1%). Bacteria cultured from the various materials included Salmonella enteritidis, S. cholerasuis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp. The ectoparasites found were Amblyomma spp and Otodectis spp (Arthropoda, Acaridae).
GROUND sloths (Gravigrada, Xenarthra) are known from middle or late Oligocene to late Pleistocene in South America(1) and from late Miocene to late Pleistocene in North America(2). They are medium to gigantic in size and have terrestrial(3) habits. Discovery of abundant and well preserved remains of a new sloth (Thalassocnus natans), in marine Pliocene deposits from Peru(4-6) drastically expands our knowledge of the range of adaptation of the order. The abundance of individuals, the absence of other land mammals in the rich marine vertebrate fauna of the site(5,6), and the fact that the Peruvian coast was a desert during the Pliocene(7,8) suggest that it was living on the shore and entered the water probably to feed upon sea-grasses or seaweeds. The morphology of premaxillae, femur, caudal vertebrae (similar to those of otters and beavers) and limb proportions are in agreement with this interpretation.
The idea for this volume came during the dryland sessions of the Association of American Geographers meeting in San Diego in April, 1992. The large number of papers devoted to aeolian processes and landforms indicated to me that aeolian geomorphology had come of age and the last 15 years or so had produced a plethora of papers, books, and edited volumes on all aspects of aeolian geomorphology. Chapter one is my tentative attempt to place develop ments in aeolian geomorphology in a historical perspective and to contemplate some thoughts about the future. The fourteen papers selected address a wide range of issues ranging from micro-scale studies devoted to aeolian dust, sediment transport, and rock varnish in ventifacts to medium-scale studies of dunes and dune forms, reverse desertification, and macro-scale studies of ergs and sand transport pathways. The American Southwest, particularly the spectacular and unique Mojave Desert of California, is featured prominently in seven chapters. I hope this volume provides students and colleagues some new perspectives in aeolian geomorphology as well as pathways for future work.
Until relatively recently the valuable tropical montane cloud forests (hereaf ter usually referred to as TMCFs) of the world had scarcely come under the assaults experienced by the downslope montane and lowland forests. TMCFs are not hospitable environments for human occupation, and their remoteness (except in places near Andean high mountain settlements and in the Ethiopian Highlands) and difficult terrain have given them de facto protection. The ad jacent upper montane rain forests have indeed been under assault for timber, fuelwood, and for conversion to grazing and agriculture for many decades, even centuries in the Andes, but true cloud forest has only come under ex ploitation as these lower elevational resources have disappeared. They have also been "nibbled" at from above where there have been alpine grasslands under grazing pressure. Increasingly now, however, these cloud forest eco systems are being fragmented, reduced, and disturbed at an alarming rate. It is now becoming recognized that steps must be taken rapidly to increase our understanding of TMCF and to achieve their conservation, because: their water-capture function is extremely important to society; • their species endemism is high; they serve as refugia for endangered species being marginalized in these environments by increasingly transformed lower elevation ecosystems; they are relatively little studied; yet, their value to science is extremely high; they have low resilience to disturbance; vii viii Preface and many other reasons, which will be discussed subsequently in this publi cation.
Several phylogenetic hypotheses pertaining to the relationships among families and genera of rodents were examined using nucleotide sequence data derived from the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA) gene. Three primary questions relative to rodent evolution were addressed. First, rodent families comprising the monophyletic suborder Hystricognathi were examined to determine whether the two groups, Caviomorpha (South American) and Phiomorpha (Old World), were respectively monophyletic. In addition, relationships among families within each continental region were investigated in detail. Second, an attempt was made to determine the sister-group to the suborder Hystricognathi as well as to test previous hypotheses based on the fossil record and comparative morphology. Third, the major subdivisions of rodent families, derived on the basis of lower jaw morphology and zygomasseteric structure, were evaluated in light of the molecular data. Although different analyses revealed areas of incongruence, several phylogenetic conclusions can be made. All data support the monophyly of the South American caviomorph rodents, whereas the phiomorph rodents are probably not monophyletic, with the family Hystricidae placed basal to the hystricognath rodent radiation. The sister-group to the suborder Hysticognathi is equivocal, and contrary to suggestions based on fossils and morphology, the family Ctenodactylidae was not found to be closely aligned to the hystricognaths. Many relationships within both caviomorph and phiomorph rodents were congruent with those suggested by earlier morphological studies, although several new findings were observed. One of these findings was the placement of the families Chinchillidae and Dinomyidae as each others' closest relatives. In terms of the major groups of rodents proposed by previous classifications, the monophyly of the suborder Sciuromorpha or Sciurognathi was not supported, whereas there was strong support for the monophyly of several recognized superfamilies as well as the suborder Myomorpha. Several other interesting observations included: (1) the placement of the Aplodontidae sister to the Sciuridae; (2) the sister-group relationship between the Geomyoidea and the family Pedetidae; and, (3) the placement of the Ctenodactylidae as a distant relative of rodents in the general clade composed of the sciuroid rodents and related families.
T h e c o n q u is t a d o r s who first discovered Central and South America must have been disappointed to find that although the fauna was so rich and new, there were no monsters. From the beginning, naturalists have seen the so-called neo-tropical zone, which stretches from Mexico and the West Indies to the very tip of South America, as a region of small animals. The llama, the tallest of its quadrupeds, is merely a rather thin, humpless small camel, a dwarf compared to a giraffe. The deer are small and have small horns, the tiny pudu standing only 37cm at the shoulder. The tapir, the most massive of the indigenous mam mals, is far from the size of its distant African cousins the elephant and the rhinoceros. The peccary is merely a miniature wild boar. The jaguar and the puma or cougar are smaller than the lion and tiger. There is only one bear, the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), which lives in the Equatorial Andes of Bolivia and Chile, and it is small in height and bulk. None of the monkeys is as big as a gorilla or orangu tan. And the pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea) is so small that you can hold it all in the palm of your hand.