The surface-active compounds of the strain Bacillus licheniformis were isolated and their structure was elucidated. The high surface-active capacity of the crude extract was basically due to traces of long-chain saturated fatty acids, especially of palmitic and stearic acids, to a mixture of small amounts of hydrocarbons with chain lenghts of 20 and 22 carbons, and mainly to appreciable amounts of four slightly different lipopeptides. The lipopeptides were found to be a mixture of four closely related compounds. The lipophilic part consisting of i-, n-C-14 or i-, ai-C-15 beta-OH fatty acids was linked to the hydrophilic peptide moiety, which contained seven amino acids (Glu, Asp, Val, three Leu and Ile) by a lactone linkage. Fifteen milligrams per litre of the purified lipopeptide product decreased the surface tension of water from 72 mN m-1 to 27 mN m-1, characterizing the product as a powerful surface-active agent that compares favourably to other (bio)surfactants. Antibiotic activity was demonstrated against bacteria and yeasts.
Recently, several reports have been published that showed a higher incidence of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in patients with Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome compared with the general population, and in most of these patients, aberrant methylation imprints of KvDMR1 have been found. This has led to the concern that ART might increase the incidence of imprinting syndromes such as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome. Not much is known on environmental or genetic factors that may interfere with the processes of imprint maintenance or resetting. A methylation analysis of KvDMR1 was performed in human oocytes at different stages of nuclear maturity and in sperm cells. The results indicate that the maternal methylation imprints were already established at the germinal vesicle stage, whereas all sperm cells were unmethylated, thereby showing that the KvDMR1 carries a germline methylation imprint. For one of the oocytes analysed, an unmethylated pattern was found, which highlights the need for further molecular studies that consider the safety of ART.,Computed tomography fails to ascertain, or exclude, the presence of intracranial haemorrhage in a considerable number of cases, especially in subarachnoid haemorrhage and haemorrhagic infarcts. A number of other methods, including cerebrospinal fluid spectrophotometry and cytology have, therefore, been tested to define their diagnostic efficacy in 25 cases of confirmed intracranial haemorrhage and in 25 instances of blood-stained cerebrospinal fluid due to traumatic puncture. The combination of spectrophotometry and cytology proved to have a high diagnostic reliability. On the basis of these results a routine scheme of investigation is proposed.,Objective In this study, the presence and severity of external auditory canal exostoses (EACE) in a group of white water kayakers related to the duration and intensity of kayaking and the number of ear infections reported were identified. Design A community-based volunteer cross-sectional study was completed with 92 kayakers (69 men, 23 women; mean (SD) age 29.3 (8.72) years) and 65 control volunteers (37 men, 28 women; mean (SD) age 36.9 (14.9) years). After exclusions, 269 individual ears were examined (154 kayakers and 115 controls). Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent otoscopic examination. Main outcome measures were the presence and severity of EACE, the duration and frequency of kayaking and self-reported ear infections. Exclusion criteria included other cold-water exposure, known ear pathology or poor visualisation of the auditory canal. Results The findings demonstrated that 69.5% of kayaker ears and 1.7% of the control group were found to have EACE. Severity of EACE was significantly associated with the duration (p<0.01) and frequency (p<0.05) of kayaking with 90.6% of kayakers that had participated for more than 10 years having evidence of EACE. A significant relationship also existed between the number of self-reported ear infections and the severity of EACE (p<0.01). Conclusion There is a positive relationship between the duration and frequency of white water kayaking and the presence and severity of EACE and associated ear infections.,The expression of amylase in various histological types of thyroid cancer was studied by an immunohistochemical technique, using a polyclonal antiamylase antiserum and two monoclonal antibodies specific for salivary and pancreatic-type amylases, respectively. Amylase was expressed in 21 of 24 (88%) thyroid cancers by polyclonal antiserum analysis. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies, however, showed that only 13 (54%) cases and three (13%) cases contained salivary-type and pancreatic-type amylases, respectively. Moreover, immunoreactivity for pancreatic-type amylase was detected only in medullary carcinoma; other histological types were positive for salivary-type amylase. These results show that thyroid cancer frequently expresses amylase, and suggest that the differences between amylase isoenzymes in thyroid cancer may correlate with those found between cellular origin of tumour.