This paper offers a comparison of the reproductive biology of the Japanese macaques of Arashiyama, Japan and the free-ranging rhesus macaques of Silver Springs, Florida, U.S.A. The data indicate that rhesus macaques of Silver Springs have a higher reproductive rate than the Japanese macaques of Arashiyama. The reproducive rate of the rhesus monkeys over three birth seasons is 82% and that for the Japanese macaque is 53%. The higher reproductive rate of rhesus monkeys is accomplished through an earlier onset of sexual maturation (4 and 5 years for the rhesus and 5 and 6 years for the Japanese monkeys) and a shorter interbirth interval (14.27+-5.54 months for rhesus and 18.00+-6.57 months for Japanese monkeys). It is suggested that, because of the relatively harsh winters experienced by Japanese macaques, the slower reproductive rate of the Japanese monkeys has been selected for in order to enable females to lengthen the time in which maternal care is extended to their offspring.