A consistent specification of quantitative processing characteristics is of crucial importance in order to obtain an efficient logical and physical database design. In this paper we propose a flow analysis of a Petri net representation of the interaction among operations within an organization function. The result of this analysis is the automa tic derivation of the operation activation frequencies. The project environment to which this analysis is relevant is also described.
Many DP managers and analysts are familiar with "Structured Systems Analysis" made famous by Gane, Sarson, DeMarco, and others. A number of organizations credit its concise, partitioned diagrams with helping them build successful systems. However, since its introduction in the mid-1970's some of the criteria for effective systems have changed. Clients expect more for their money than systems that perform close to an agreed specification. They also expect built-in flexibility so that future, unanticipated uses of related information can be provided to them inexpensively.
ObjectiveThe goal of this study was to summarise the websites of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) manufacturers in China and describe how they market their products.MethodsFrom March to April 2013, we used two search keywords ‘electronic cigarette’ (Dian Zi Xiang Yan in Chinese) and ‘manufacturer’ (Sheng Chan Chang Jia in Chinese) to search e-cigarette manufacturers in China on Alibaba, an internet-based e-commerce business that covers business-to-business online marketplaces, retail and payment platforms, shopping search engine and data-centric cloud computing services. A total of 18 websites of 12 e-cigarette manufacturers in China were analysed by using a coding guide which includes 14 marketing claims.ResultsHealth-related benefits were claimed most frequently (89%), followed by the claims of no secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure (78%), and utility for smoking cessation (67%). A wide variety of flavours, celebrity endorsements and e-cigarettes specifically for women were presented. None of the websites had any age restriction on access, references to government regulation or lawsuits. Instruction on how to use e-cigarettes was on 17% of the websites.ConclusionsBetter regulation of e-cigarette marketing messages on manufacturers’ websites is needed in China. The frequent claims of health benefits, smoking cessation, strategies appealing to youth and women are concerning, especially targeting women. Regulators should prohibit marketing claims of health benefits, no SHS exposure and value for smoking cessation in China until health-related, quality and safety issues have been adequately addressed. To avoid e-cigarette use for initiation to nicotine addiction, messages targeting youth and women should be prohibited.
ObjectiveTo systematically examine evidence on tobacco use among conflict-affected civilian populations.Data sourcesPrimary quantitative and qualitative studies published in English up to April 2014. Bibliographic databases searched were EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycEXTRA, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cochrane; with the main terms of: (Smoke*, tobacco*, cigarette*, nicotine, beedi, bidi, papirosi, dip, chew, snuff, snus, smokeless tobacco) AND (armed-conflict, conflict-affected, conflict, war, refugee, internally displaced, forcibly displaced, asylum, humanitarian). Grey literature was searched using humanitarian databases, websites and search engines.Study selectionStudies were independently selected by two reviewers, with a study outcome of tobacco use and a population of conflict-affected civilian populations such as internally displaced persons, refugees, residents in conflict-affected areas, residents and returning forcibly displaced populations returning in stabilised and postconflict periods. 2863 studies were initially identified.Data extractionData were independently extracted. The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme for qualitative studies were used to assess study quality.Data synthesis39 studies met inclusion criteria and descriptive analysis was used. Findings were equivocal on the effect of conflict on tobacco use. Evidence was clearer on associations between post-traumatic stress and other mental disorders with nicotine dependence. However, there were too few studies for definitive conclusions. No study examined the effectiveness of tobacco-related interventions. The quantitative studies were moderate (N=13) or weak (N=22) quality, and qualitative studies were moderate (N=3) or strong (N=2).ConclusionsSome evidence indicates links between conflict and tobacco use but substantially more research is required.,ObjectivesTo investigate temporal trend in fall mortality among adults (aged ≥20 years) in southern Sweden using multiple cause of death data.MethodsWe examined all death certificates (DCs, n=2 01 488) in adults recorded in the Skåne region during 1998–2014. We identified all fall deaths using International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes (W00-W19) and calculated the mortality rates by age and sex. Temporal trends were evaluated using joinpoint regression and associated causes were identified by age-adjusted and sex-adjusted observed/expected ratios.ResultsFalls were mentioned on 1.0% and selected as underlying cause in 0.7% of all DCs, with the highest frequency among those aged ≥70 years. The majority (75.6%) of fall deaths were coded as unspecified fall (ICD-10 code: W19) followed by falling on or from stairs/steps (7.7%, ICD-10 code: W10) and other falls on the same level (6.3%, ICD-10 code: W18). The mean age at fall deaths increased from 77.5 years in 1998–2002 to 82.9 years in 2010–2014 while for other deaths it increased from 78.5 to 79.8 years over the same period. The overall mean age-standardised rate of fall mortality was 8.3 and 4.0 per 1 00 000 person-years in men and women, respectively, and increased by 1.7% per year in men and 0.8% per year in women during 1998–2014. Head injury and diseases of the circulatory system were recorded as contributing cause on 48.7% of fall deaths.ConclusionsThere is an increasing trend of deaths due to falls in southern Sweden. Further investigations are required to explain this observation particularly among elderly men.,The Lundh test meal was administered to 32 normal subjects and 53 patients with suspected pancreatic disease. Tryptic activity was measured in the recovered duodenal juice. The level of activity distinguished the normal subjects from those with independently confirmed pancreatic disease, particularly chronic pancreatitis and carcinoma of the pancreas. The advantages and disadvantages of the test are discussed.,A prospective randomised study to compare the efficacy and complications of injection sclerotherapy carried out at intervals of one week and three weeks up to the time obliteration of varices was achieved, was undertaken in 55 patients (48 cirrhosis, six portal vein thrombosis, one nodular regenerative hyperplasia). The number of courses of injection required for obliteration of the varices was not different in the two groups and despite a shorter time scale for obliteration in the weekly treated patients the frequency with which further episodes of bleeding occurred before that was not significantly less. Mucosal ulceration during the period required for obliteration was observed at endoscopy more frequently in the weekly treated patients but was not associated with a greater frequency of postinjection pain, dysphagia or of long term stricture formation.,The weights of the carotid bodies have been measured in an unselected group of 40 successive cases coming for routine necropsy. Although the mean weight of the carotid bodies was higher in those subjects with emphysema or Pickwickian syndrome, this difference did not reach a level of statistical significance. Nevertheless, in a group of two patients with cor pulmonale and one with the Pickwickian syndrome the mean weight of the carotid bodies was significantly higher than that of the rest. Such observations would be consistent with enlargement of the glomic tissue in response to chronic hypoxia. In addition to these observations there was a significant correlation between the size of the carotid bodies and the weights of the left and right ventricles separately, while there was a substantially higher correlation between the weights of the carotid bodies and the combined weights of the two ventricles. Should such a correlation be determined by a causative link between these two measurements, a new metabolic role of glomic tissue will have to be considered. The histology of the carotid bodies was studied and differential cell counts were carried out in 21 cases. Enlargement of the carotid bodies was not accompanied by any change in the differential cell count, except that in one case with `cor pulmonale' and large carotid bodies areas of hyperplasia showed a predominance of the dark variety of type 1 (chief) cell.
A consecutive series of 489 patients with rheumatoid arthritis seen at the centre was studied to determine their cancer morbidity. Overall the 36 cancers diagnosed in the series between 1964 and 1981 were not significantly in excess of the expected number, but there was a highly significant excess of tumours of the reticuloendothelial system. The excess was mainly due to 6 observed cases of lymphoma. We conclude that there is a highly significant association between rheumatoid arthritis and the subsequent development of lymphoproliferative malignancy in this series.,Reflecting on the contribution by Rahul Kumar to the symposium, I consider the following topics in relation to risks in research: (1) treating someone as a mere means; (2) aggregation; (3) different conceptions of contractualism; (4) uncertainty; (5) paternalism and complicity.,ObjectiveFew studies have explored Australian women's understandings of contraception. This study examined the attitudes towards, and understandings of, the subdermal contraceptive implant expressed by women living in New South Wales (NSW), Australia.Study designAs part of a larger qualitative study using in-depth, open-ended interviews in 2012–2013 with women aged 16–49 years who had ever used contraception (n=94), 65 interviews from women who discussed or mentioned the subdermal implant, but had not previously used the device, were examined and analysed using thematic analysis.ResultsThe emergent themes were: satisfaction with current method; weak personal opinions and ambivalence; uncertainty due to specific concerns; and strong negative reactions – fear and dislike. Although there were a few positive perceptions expressed by women who had never used the subdermal implant, for the majority of women the perception was predominantly negative.Discussion and conclusionWomen tended to form negative impressions from the stories of other women about the subdermal implant. Interventions to enhance evidence-informed awareness of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the implant – for example, improved access to supportive contraceptive counselling – need investigation in the Australian context. Avenues to improve women's perceived control over the device could also be usefully investigated.