Five patients with leprosy are presented. Each had had extensive and chronic contact with armadillos. No other potential risk factor for the development of leprosy could be identified. Since the nine-banded armadillo is a known carrier of leprosy in the southern area of the United States, we believe that these patients may have contracted leprosy from infected armadillos.
Investigations of the structure and function of the flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR) in the cat have led to the hypothesis that the compartmentalized (nonuniform) distribution of fiber types within the muscle relate to the complex motor skills of the cat. To test this hypothesis a study was undertaken to compare the FCR in four mammalian species of similar body size but with different forelimb motor tasks. The species chosen were: dog, opossum, armadillo, and cat. Comparisons were made among species with regard to general muscle morphology, fiber types and sizes, fiber proportions, and fiber distributions. The FCR of all species was morphologically similar and contained three muscle fiber types (SO, FOG, and FG). The mean area of muscle fibers was largest in opossum, while the FCR fibers of dogs were smallest. The percentage of SO fibers in the dog FCR was greater than in the other species studied. The opossum FCR also contained a high percentage of SO fibers. The armadillo FCR consisted of a high percentage of FG fibers. In the cat FCR the percentages of all three fiber types were similar. For each species, individual fiber proportions were in agreement with the results for fiber percentages. Compartmentalized distribution of fiber types existed in each species with the dog having the most compartmentalized fiber type distribution and the cat the least compartmentalized distribution. Therefore it seems that the compartmentalized organization of the FCR is not related to any specialized motor task, but may be a generalized pattern associated with motor patterns shared among all species studied.
Topographical variations of the ependymal surface of the whole brain ventricular system of Bradypus tridactylus were studied at the scanning electron microscope after CO2 critical point drying and carbon-gold coating. Certain selected areas were also studied at the transmission electron microscope, following standard technical procedures. We observed distinct patterns in the distribution of cilia, microvilli and supraependymal structures (nerve-like and fibrous astrocyte fibers), and also a small number of blebs. It the lateral transition zone between the floor and roof of the lateral ventricle were found interconrected stellate bulgings measuring an average 98 x 190 mm, constituted by a complex meshwork of processes from fibrous astrocytes, without ependymal lining and with few cell bodies. In the junction between these formations and the underlying neuropil, ciliated ependymal-cell-like glial cells were found to delimit complex labyrinthic spaces. Based on the morphological findings, morpho-functional considerations are made.
A group of geoscientists from a number of NATO countries met under NATO sponsorship in Copenhagen on February 27 and 28, 1978, and formulated a proposal entitled "EVOLUTION OF THE GREENLAND ICELAND-FAEROE-SCOTLAND RIDGE, A KEY AREA IN MARINE GEOSCIENCE". This part of the North Atlantic Ocean is of particular interest because of its anomalously shallow bathymetry which has profoundly influenced many aspects of the evolution of the North Atlantic. The proposed investigations therefore aim to study the deep crustal structure including relationship of continental and oceanic crust, history of subsidence of the ridge including its past role as a land bridge, age of the oceanic basement along it and its history of formation, and the influence of the ridge on Tertiary and Quaternary depositional palaeoenvironments. In furtherance of this proposal, it is intended to carry out a series of seismic and drilling operations on the Ridge during the coming years. These major marine investigations will be mainly funded from national sources. An important preliminary stage to the project is the collec tion and synthesis of available data. NATO has already approved a small budget for this purpose which has enabled a geoscientist to work partly at the Department of Geological Sciences of Durham University, UK, and partly at Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, USA, for about six months to compile the data. The most important map showing magnetic anomalies and lineations in the area, is included in a pocket at the back of this volume.
The pineal gland has been a subject of interest and speculation for more than 2000 years. Greek anatomists were impressed by the ob servation that the pineal gland is an unpaired structure and they believed that it regulated the flow of thoughts. The philosopher Descartes proposed an important role for this organ in brain function. At the beginning of the 20th century experiments by several investi gators indicated that the pineal influenced sexual function and skin pigmentation and was also responsive to light signals. With the iso lation of melatonin from bovine pineal glands by Lerner and cowork ers in 1958 the modern era of pineal research was initiated. Within a few years the pathway for the biosynthesis of melatonin in the pineal was elucidated. Soon thereafter it was shown that the formation of melatonin was influenced by environmental lighting. Ana tomists found that the pineal was innervated by sympathetic nerves and that the gland had photoreceptor elements. It was also shown that the gonads were influenced by light via the pineal gland. Research on the pineal gland became of increasing interest to anatomists, bioche mists, pharmacologists and endocrinologists. With the expanding know ledge concerning the function of the pineal gland contributed by the wide variety of disciplines, it was thought that a study workshop would be timely.
Ants and termites serve as food for many species of mammals. Yet there have been virtually no studies of the predator-prey relationship between mammals and these social insects. The present study was designed to determine which species of ants and termites are eaten by mammals and attempt to explain why these species are eaten instead of others. In order to answer these questions I studied the feeding biology of myrmecophagous mammals in central Brazil and the biology of their termite prey. The first portion of the research examines the biology of nine species of central Brazilian termites and quantifies nest construction, proportion of soldiers, size of soldiers, response to predation and nutritional values (water, ash, total nitrogen and fat). It also examines the biology of the dominant mound-building species in the area, Cornitermes cumulans. The second portion of the study contains four parts on the feeding biology of ant and termite eating mammals. First, the food habits of armadillos (Dasypodidae: Edentata) are reviewed with emphasis on the myrmecophagous species. The next chapter examines the preferences of captive burrowing mice (Oxymycterus roberti, Cricetidae: Rodentia) for eight different species of termites (studied in chapters one and two). Soldier-based defense is shown to be the most important factor correlated with the preference of these predators. The sixth chapter compares the food preferences of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Myrmecophagidae: Edentata) with those in Emas National Park. The termites offered to the captive anteaters were the same as those offered to the burrowing mice while the ones fed on by wild anteaters were covered in chapter three. The final chapter is a review of the feeding biology of ant and termite eating mammals. Data from 216 species of mammals are analyzed for correlations between the biology of myrmecophagous predators (size, taxonomy, degree of myrmecophagy and foraging location) and the biology of the prey (size, taxonomy, type of defense).