Studies were made on the morphogenetic potential of petioles of Pelargonium hortorum (1 variety, 2 clones) and Pelargonium peltatum (1 variety, 1 clone) grown on the medium of Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with auxins (IAA, IBA, NAA) and cytokinins (KIN, BAP, zeatin). The most intensive growth of callus of both species was observed on medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 10 mg/l KIN, both under constant illumination and in darkness. Differentiation of callus and regeneration of plants occurred in P. peltatum variety "PAC Dresdner Amethyst" and in P. hortorum clone 3766/4 on medium containing 1 mg/l BAP, 1 mg/l IAA and exposed to a photoperiod (L:D = 16:8).
Abstract We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma–polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination.
The incubation of Treponema pallidum with rabbit testicular cells, HEP-2 cells, human foreskin cells, rat cardiac cells, and rat skeletal muscle cells caused morphological disruption of these cultured cells. Control preparations of heat-inactivated treponemes, a high-speed supernatant in which treponemes had been pelleted, and culture medium failed to damage the tissue cells, as did viable treponemes when the cells were incubated in inverted Sykes-Moore chambers. Thus, cellular disruption is not associated with soluble treponemal, soluble inflammatory, or soluble testicular constituents but is mediated by the specific attachment of T pallidum. This organism apparently elaborates some type of toxic activity that lyses membranes: this may explain some of the histopathology of syphilitic disease.
The differentiated phenotype of rabbit articular chondrocytes consists primarily of type II collagen and cartilage-specific proteoglycan. During serial monolayer culture this phenotype is lost and replaced by a complex collagen phenotype consisting predominately of type I collagen and a low level of proteoglycan synthesis. Such dedifferentiated chondrocytes reexpress the differentiated phenotype during suspension culture in firm gels of 0.5% low Tm agarose. Approximately 80% of the cells survive this transition from the flattened morphology of anchorage-dependent culture to the spherical morphology of anchorage-independent culture and then deposit characteristic proteoglycan matrix domains. The rates of proteoglycan and collagen synthesis return to those of primary chondrocytes. Using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intact collagen chains and two-dimensional cyanogen bromide peptide mapping, we demonstrated a complete return to the differentiated collagen phenotype. These results emphasize the primary role of cell shape in the modulation of the chondrocyte phenotype and demonstrate a reversible system for the study of gene expression.
Pluripotent murine embryonal carcinoma cells can differentiate in culture into many tissue types similar to those normally found in early embryos and may be useful in investigating some developmental events. Central to our understanding of embryonic development are explanations of cellular determination, that is, the commitment of early embryonic cells to form divergent cell types. Of relevance is recent work with the F9 line of embryonal carcinoma cells which suggests that certain extra-embryonic cell types are specifically formed following treatment of undifferentiated cells with drugs and the manipulation of culture conditions. We report here that the P19 line of embryonic carcinoma cells may provide and analogous system in which drugs can be used to manipulate the formation of tissues which normally comprise the fetus. In the presence of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) aggregates of P19 cells differentiate rapidly to form large amounts of cardiac and skeletal muscle but no neurones or glia. We have previously shown that in the presence of high concentrations of retinoic acid (greater than 5 x 10(-7) M), aggregates of these same cells develop into neuronal and glial tissues but not muscle. Thus, drugs can be used to generate two quite different spectra of embryonic tissue types from the same population of embryonal carcinoma cells.
We have used the technique of experimental wounding of confluent monolayers of normal fibroblasts to induce essentially unidirectional and synchronous cell movement at the edge of the wound. The intracellular location of the Golgi apparatus and the microtubule-organizing center was determined by double indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, using antibodies specific for the membranes of the Golgi apparatus and antibodies specific for tubulin, respectively. In cells at the wound edge, the immunolabeled Golgi apparatus and microtubule-organizing center were in close proximity to one another and located predominantly forward of the cell nucleus facing the wound. In the same cultures in cells removed from the wound, the two organelles were also coordinately located; however, they were randomly oriented with respect to the wound edge. This reorientation of the two organelles in cells at the wound edge was evident within minutes after wounding and persisted as cell extension subsequently occurred into the wound. These results suggest that both the Golgi apparatus and the microtubule-organizing center may participate in directing cell movement. The possible mechanisms involved are discussed in the light of previous hypotheses and experimental evidence concerning cell motility.