Dye-sensitized solar cells offer an economically reliable and suitable alternative in moderating the challenges presented by the existing convectional photovoltaic cells. Whereas, for convectional solar cells the semiconductor adopts both the duty of light absorption and charge carrier transport, these two functions are separated in dye-sensitized solar cells. However, the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has remained relatively low. For this reason, this research was aimed at how to increase the dye-sensitized solar cells performance. To achieve this, compact cover of TiO2 was deposited on a conductive glass substrate by using Holmarc’s Spray Pyrolysis system, using Ultrasonic Spray Head and spraying in vertical geometry, while TiO2 nanoparticles and nanotubes were deposited by screen printing technique on top of a transparent conducting FTO glass slide with or without the TiO2 compact layer. Transmission characteristics showed that introducing TiO2 compact layer on the conductive film lowers the transmission while reflectance properties were less than 15 % for all the prepared thin films. SEM micrographs showed that TiO2 nanotubes had a skein-like morphology with abundant number of nanotubes intertwined together to form a large surface area film. Solar cell performance properties revealed that introducing compact layer to dye-sensitized solar cells improved the performance by 145 % (from 1.31 % to 3.21 %) while TiCl4 treatment on compact layered dye-sensitized solar cells increased the efficiency by 28.79 % (from 0.66 % to 0.85 %).
The article deals with legal acts that set liability for illegal activities, related to the movement of goods across the customs border on Ukrainian territories during the period of their belonging to the USSR. The trends of development of the peculiarities of establishing liability for smuggling in independent Ukraine can be followed. It has been established that domestic legislators, taking into account the experience of the USSR, provided criminal and administrative responsibility for smuggling by the end of 2011. After 2011 such notion as administrative (commodity, economic) smuggling ceased to be used in law-making practice. Smuggling crimes have become only criminal and are associated with the illegal movement of items removed from free circulation (drugs, weapons, explosives, etc.). All other offenses, related to the illegal movement of goods through the customs border are violations of customs rules, the responsibility for which is provided by the Customs Code of Ukraine. It is emphasized that the concept of “administrative (commodity, economic) smuggling” has been united with the notion “illegal movement of goods through the customs border” within the framework of homogeneous administrative offenses.
Lactose intolerance is widespread in the world, although its frequency varies considerably in different countries. In Ukraine, 15-35% of the adult population suffer from this illness. For these people, it is necessary to develop special dairy products – lactose-free and low-lactose. A promising direction in the development of the dairy industry is the targeted production of exclusive ice cream types, intended for people intolerant to lactose. The article substantiates the expediency of the development of a low-lactose ice cream formulation of therapeutic and prophylactic purpose with antioxidant and pre-probiotic properties using secondary milk and plant material. The selection of the main components – liquid lactose-free protein concentrate (LFPC) and yoghurt base with reduced lactose and high protein content (YB) – was carried out according to foaming ability, foam stability, viscosity, antioxidant activity and organoleptic parameters. The ratio of LFPC / YB components was 60:40 (for a non-lactose concentrate, obtained by ultrafiltration of buttermilk at FC = 4 and by diafiltration (DF = 7) UF buttermilk retentate) and LFPC / YB – 50:50 (for a lactose concentrate, obtained by ultrafiltration of buttermilk at FC = 5 and diafiltration (DF = 7) UF buttermilk retentate). Both samples had the best technological characteristics: foaming ability – 28% and 32 %, respectively, foam resistance – 120 and 130 minutes, respectively. According to organoleptic parameters, the samples were similar, they had a pleasant sour-milk taste, a homogeneous consistency, a homogeneous white-yellow color, which is characteristic of sour milk ice cream. The antioxidant activity of the samples was 315 and 330 c. u., respectively. The rational mass fractions of the auxiliary components of a mixture of ice cream were determined: inulin – 4%; lactulose – 1%; ginger – 0,3%; citric acid – 0,15%; stabilizer – 0,2% (for LFPC (FC = 4) / YB) and 0,25 % (for LFPC (FC = 5) / YB). The recipe composition of low-lactose biologically active ice cream was developed. The antioxidant activity of samples of a mixture of low-lactose ice cream and a mass fraction of lactose, which was 1.1-1.4 % depending on the ratios of LFPC / YB, were determined.
IoT (Internet of Things) requires the implementation of digital encryption of information, transaction support and recording of all events for security. It can provide cryptocurrencies protocols with adding an additional possibility of payments. This opportunity is not so much demanded at the hardware level as in the software implementation. We have discovered that IoT devices are widely used for illegal purposes for trusts or network consolidated attacks, and virtually no legal and useful ways of using their hardware-distributed capabilities. Standardization and compatibility in IOT network should become the main tools for the possibility of introducing new solutions, testing their utility, performance and safety. The standardization of a new approach to interactive protocols in the IOT network and the Internet with a finance approach is now inevitable. We need new IEEE standards for cryptocurrencies and IoT functioning. They must include standards for protocol functioning, transaction validation and saving, privacy and security support. Cryptocurrencies and IoT interaction diagram were proposed. The IoT network devices technology will be in the future instance of the smart class of digital-physical systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart homes, intelligent transportation systems, smart cities etc. The financial aspect for purchasing software, services, solutions and sales of the resulting benefits will complement this network with additional capabilities. The development of standards for the financial level of functioning is also necessary.
The article considers the problem of genre attribution of the short story The Root of All Evil by Graham Greene, which is defined as novella by the French criticism and as a story by the Russian criticism, and correlation of its poetics with the genre model. The importance and topicality of solving this problem lies in the fact that this is the first study of the genre specificity and poetics of one of Greene’s short stories written in the comic mode, which opens the prospect of a comprehensive study of the whole body of his short prose (not studied yet). The research is based on the theory of the genre (M. Bakhtin, N. Leiderman, R. Welleck and O. Warren, etc.), according to which the genre is a form of artistic cognition of the world, has genre memory (the semantic core of the genre) and sets the parameters of the artistic world-modeling and reading of the text, and also uses the genological, textual, structural-analytical and narratological principles of analysis, which allowed to make the following conclusions. First, the presence in the work of such characteristic features of the novel genre as an unusual case or incident underlying the plot; one dominant storyline and the dynamism of unfolding of events with their accumulation; an unexpected turn of the plot (novelistic pointe) and a comic beginning inherent in a significant number of short stories. Secondly, the semantic content of the work corresponds to the artistic model of the novelistic genre, which is characterized by a mockery of the undue, defective, false (in this case religious dogmatism) and the assertion of a healthy and full-fledged element of being. The method used in the work and the results obtained are promising both for further study of Graham Greene’s small prose and for similar fields of research.
The technologies of a smart home and artificial intelligence (AI) are now inextricably linked. The perception and consideration of these technologies as a single system will make it possible to significantly simplify the approach to their study, design and implementation. The introduction of AI in managing the infrastructure of a smart home is a process of irreversible close future at the level with personal assistants and autopilots. It is extremely important to standardize, create and follow the typical models of information gathering and device management in a smart home, which should lead in the future to create a data analysis model and decision making through the software implementation of a specialized AI. AI techniques such as multi-agent systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic will form the basis for the functioning of a smart home in the future. The problems of diversity of data and models and the absence of centralized popular team decisions in this area significantly slow down further development. A big problem is a low percentage of open source data and code in the smart home and the AI when the research results are mostly unpublished and difficult to reproduce and implement independently. The proposed ways of finding solutions to models and standards can significantly accelerate the development of specialized AIs to manage a smart home and create an environment for the emergence of native innovative solutions based on analysis of data from sensors collected by monitoring systems of smart home. Particular attention should be paid to the search for resource savings and the profit from surpluses that will push for the development of these technologies and the transition from a level of prospect to technology exchange and the acquisition of benefits.
The purpose of the article is to study the current state and the prospects of innovative development of export-oriented industrial enterprises of Lviv region and of Ukraine on the basis of modern theory and practice in the field of economics and enterprise management. It is established that the innovative activity of Ukrainian industrial enterprises is at a rather low level with the prospect of further reduction. The key obstacles and difficulties arising on the way of innovative development of Ukrainian export-oriented industrial enterprises are highlighted. The ways of solving the problems of innovative development of export-oriented industrial enterprises in Ukraine are offered. The prospect of further research in this area is the study of key aspects of the development of export-oriented industrial enterprises with the prospect of development and increases their export potential.
The article studies the genre and style features of the work “The Chants of the Divine Liturgy adapted for rural choirs by P. Demutskiy”. The paper analyzes the musical and verbal material as well as the structure of the work. In the process of analysis it has been established that in the Liturgy the author’s compositions by P. Demutskiy, his harmonization of everyday melodies, church tunes, melodies recorded from voice, marked “from old notes” and without indicating the source, were used. It is proved that the work is a vivid example of the Ukrainian spiritual music of the beginning of the 20th century and demonstrates the author’s (P. Demutskiy) vision of the genre in refraction through folkloric experience, which is an indicative trend of the musical culture of that period of time.
Titanium dioxide has a number of applications in solar cells. In this study, TiO2 thin films were synthesized using a simple but less expensive, low temperature and large area deposition method referred to as chemical bath deposition. Their electrical and optical properties were examined at various temperatures where it was observed that the films exhibited low reflectance which increased with increase in wavelength with refractive indices of 2.2–2.5 in the visible spectra. Sheet resistivity ranged between 13.54±0.095 Ω/m to 17.27±0.209 Ω/m. They were use to fabricate photovoltaic cell which exhibited the following parameters: a short circuit current, Isc=0.002445 A, open voltage, Voc = 0.04731 V, a fill factor, FF=0.551 and an efficiency, η=0.531 %. They were recommended for diode applications.
The purpose of the article is to identify and analyze the features of the constituents of the fiscal policy of the state with their components. The fiscal policy of the state as one of the key components of the state financial policy: 1) plays an essential role in regulating the economy by influencing the state revenues and expenditures; 2) is caused by a number of factors (causes), in particular the requirements of the European integration processes, decentralization and the fight against systemic crisis phenomena in the economy. Today, Ukraine's fiscal policy does not fully realize its potential, which determines the relevance of the issues raised in the work. It has been clarified that the fiscal policy of the state should be understood as the purposeful policy in the field of state budget revenues, the policy of establishing (defining) and receiving (accumulation) of its revenues (i.e. the state budget) in order to solve such key (main) tasks as : 1) reduction of the general level of unemployment; 2) raising the standard of living of the population; 3) stimulation of entrepreneurial activity (initiative); 4) prevention of inefficient use of resources; 5) development of innovation and investment activity; 6) preventing the growth of inflation. It has been found out that the main (key) integral structural components of the fiscal policy of the state are: 1) the policy of state income (revenues), which consists of the targeted activity of the state in regulating tax, non-tax and other revenues on a non-refundable basis in accordance with the legislation in force in a particular country (including fees for the provision of administrative services, transfers, own revenues (receipts) of budget institutions and organizations) in order to effectively perform state functions; 2) the policy of state expenditures, which should be understood as the targeted state activity in regulating budget expenditures, providing loans from the budget, repaying debt and placing budget funds in deposits, purchasing securities, etc. It has been proved that the strategic goals of the fiscal policy of Ukraine should be: 1) unshadowing the economy; 2) creating a favorable investment climate; 3) ensuring the investment of resources into the human capital, in the first turn, into the educational and professional potential; 4) optimization of the structure of budget revenues/expenditures; 5) carrying out the weighted debt policy, etc. The prospect of further research in this direction is the development of practical proposals (recommendations) for improving Ukraine’s fiscal policy in the context of anti-crisis measures.