The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updates on cancer incidence and death rates and trends in these outcomes for the United States. This year's report includes incidence trends for human papillomavirus (HPV)associated cancers and HPV vaccination (recommended for adolescents aged 1112 years). Data on cancer incidence were obtained from the CDC, NCI, and NAACCR, and data on mortality were obtained from the CDC. Long- (1975/19922009) and short-term (20002009) trends in age-standardized incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for the leading cancers among men and among women were examined by joinpoint analysis. Prevalence of HPV vaccination coverage during 2008 and 2010 and of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing during 2010 were obtained from national surveys. Death rates continued to decline for all cancers combined for men and women of all major racial and ethnic groups and for most major cancer sites; rates for both sexes combined decreased by 1.5% per year from 2000 to 2009. Overall incidence rates decreased in men but stabilized in women. Incidence rates increased for two HPV-associated cancers (oropharynx, anus) and some cancers not associated with HPV (eg, liver, kidney, thyroid). Nationally, 32.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.3% to 33.6%) of girls aged 13 to 17 years in 2010 had received three doses of the HPV vaccine, and coverage was statistically significantly lower among the uninsured (14.1%, 95% CI 9.4% to 20.6%) and in some Southern states (eg, 20.0% in Alabama [95% CI 13.9% to 27.9%] and Mississippi [95% CI 13.8% to 28.2%]), where cervical cancer rates were highest and recent Pap testing prevalence was the lowest. The overall trends in declining cancer death rates continue. However, increases in incidence rates for some HPV-associated cancers and low vaccination coverage among adolescents underscore the need for additional prevention efforts for HPV-associated cancers, including efforts to increase vaccination coverage.
Gliomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor, representing 81% of malignant brain tumors. Although relatively rare, they cause significant mortality and morbidity. Glioblastoma, the most common glioma histology (similar to 45% of all gliomas), has a 5-year relative survival of similar to 5%. A small portion of these tumors are caused by Mendelian disorders, including neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Genomic analyses of glioma have also produced new evidence about risk and prognosis. Recently discovered biomarkers that indicate improved survival include O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation, isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation, and a glioma cytosine-phosphate-guanine island methylator phenotype. Genome-wide association studies have identified heritable risk alleles within 7 genes that are associated with increased risk of glioma. Many risk factors have been examined as potential contributors to glioma risk. Most significantly, these include an increase in risk by exposure to ionizing radiation and a decrease in risk by history of allergies or atopic disease(s). The potential influence of occupational exposures and cellular phones has also been examined, with inconclusive results. We provide a "state of the science" review of current research into causes and risk factors for gliomas in adults.
Background: Recent genetic and morphologic studies have challenged the traditional view on the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer; suggesting that ovarian cancer predominantly arises within the fallopian tubes or the uterus. We hypothesize that surgical removal of the fallopian tubes is associated with a reduced risk for ovarian cancer. Methods: In this population-based cohort study, we used data on women with previous surgery on benign indication (sterilization, salpingectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy [BSO], hysterectomy; n = 251 465) compared with the unexposed population (n = 5 449 119) between 1973 and 2009 and analyzed with Cox regression models. The effects of one-and two-sided salpingectomy were considered in a subanalysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: There was a statistically significantly lower risk for ovarian cancer among women with previous salpingectomy (HR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.81) when compared with the unexposed population. In addition, statistically significant risk reductions were observed among women with previous hysterectomy (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.88), sterilization (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.64 to 0.81), and hysterectomy with BSO (HR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.03 to 0.12). Bilateral salpingectomy was associated with a 50% decrease in risk of ovarian cancer compared with the unilateral procedure (HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.17 to 0.73, and 0.71, 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.91, respectively). Conclusion: Salpingectomy on benign indication is associated with reduced risk of ovarian cancer. These data support the hypothesis that a substantial fraction of ovarian cancer arises in the fallopian tube. Our results suggest that removal of the fallopian tubes by itself, or concomitantly with other benign surgery, is an effective measure to reduce ovarian cancer risk in the general population.
Background PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) refers to a spectrum of disorders caused by mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene. Diagnostic criteria for Cowden syndrome, the principal PTEN-related disorder, were first established in 1996 before the identification of the PTEN gene and the ability to molecularly confirm a clinical diagnosis. These consortium criteria were based on clinical experience and case reports in the existing literature, with their inherent selection biases. Although it was initially reported that approximately 80% of patients with Cowden syndrome had an identifiable germline PTEN mutation, more recent work has shown these diagnostic criteria to be far less specific. In addition, increasing evidence has documented the association of a broader spectrum of clinical features with PTEN mutations. Our goal was to develop revised, evidence-based diagnostic criteria and to include features of the broader spectrum of PTEN-related clinical syndromes. Methods We performed a systematic search and review of the medical literature related to clinical features reported in individuals with a PTEN mutation and/or a related clinical diagnosis. Results We found no sufficient evidence to support inclusion of benign breast disease, uterine fibroids, or genitourinary malformations as diagnostic criteria. There was evidence to include autism spectrum disorders, colon cancer, esophageal glycogenic acanthosis, penile macules, renal cell carcinoma, testicular lipomatosis, and vascular anomalies. Conclusions We propose revised, evidence-based criteria covering the spectrum of PTEN-related clinical disorders. Additional research on clinical features associated with PTEN mutations is warranted.
Background: Short telomeres in peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with older age and age-related diseases. We tested the hypotheses that short telomeres are associated with both increased cancer mortality and all-cause mortality. Methods: Individuals (n = 64 637) were recruited from 1991 onwards from two Danish prospective cohort studies: the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study. All had telomere length measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the genotypes rs1317082 (TERC), rs7726159 (TERT), and rs2487999 (OBFC1) determined. The sum of telomere-shortening alleles from these three genotypes was calculated. We conducted Cox regression analyses and instrumental variable analyses using the allele sum as an instrument. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among 7607 individuals who died during follow-up (0-22 years, median = 7 years), 2420 had cancer and 2633 had cardiovascular disease as causes of death. Decreasing telomere length deciles were associated with increasing allcause mortality (P-trend = 2*10(-15)). The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of all-cause mortality was 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 1.57) for individuals in the shortest vs the longest decile. Results were similar for cancer mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Telomere length decreased 69 base pairs (95% CI = 61 to 76) per allele for the allele sum, and the per-allele hazard ratio for cancer mortality was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.91 to 0.99). Allele sum was not associated with cardiovascular, other, or all-cause mortality. Conclusion: Short telomeres in peripheral blood leukocytes were associated with high mortality in association analyses. In contrast, genetically determined short telomeres were associated with low cancer mortality but not with all-cause mortality.
Background: Adiposity, measured by body mass index, is implicated in carcinogenesis. While adult weight gain has diverse advantages over body mass index in measuring adiposity, systematic reviews on adult weight gain in relation to adiposityrelated cancers are lacking. Methods: PubMed and Embase were searched through September 2014 for prospective observational studies investigating the relationship between adult weight gain and the risk of 10 adiposity-related cancers. Dose-response meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model to estimate summary relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each cancer type. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: A total of 50 studies were included. For each 5 kg increase in adult weight gain, the summary relative risk was 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08 to 1.13) for postmenopausal breast cancer among no-or low-hormone replacement therapy (HRT) users, 1.39 (95% CI = 1.29 to 1.49) and 1.09 (95% CI = 1.02 to 1.16) for postmenopausal endometrial cancer among HRT nonusers and users, respectively, 1.13 (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.23) for postmenopausal ovarian cancer among no or low HRT users, 1.09 (95% CI = 1.04 to 1.13) for colon cancer in men. The relative risk of kidney cancer comparing highest and lowest level of adult weight gain was 1.42 (95% CI = 1.11 to 1.81). Adult weight gain was unrelated to cancers of the breast (premenopausal women, postmenopausal HRT users), prostate, colon (women), pancreas, and thyroid. An increase in risk associated with adult weight gain for breast cancer was statistically significantly greater among postmenopausal women (P-heterogeneity = .001) and HRT nonusers (P-heterogeneity = .001); that for endometrial cancer was alike among HRT nonusers (P-heterogeneity = .04). Conclusions: Avoiding adult weight gain itself may confer protection against certain types of cancers, particularly among HRT nonusers.
Background. If cancer arises and is maintained by a small population of cancer-initiating cells within every tumor, understanding how these cells react to cancer treatment will facilitate improvement of cancer treatment in the future. Cancer-initiating cells can now be prospectively isolated from breast cancer cell lines and tumor samples and propagated as mammospheres in vitro under serum-free conditions. Methods: CD24(-/low)/CD44(+) cancer-initiating cells were isolated from MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer monolayer cultures and propagated as mammospheres. Their response to radiation was investigated by assaying clonogenic survival and by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, phosphorylation of the replacement histone H2AX, CD44 levels, CD24 levels, and Notch-1 activation using flow cytometry. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Cancer-initiating cells were more resistant to radiation than cells grown as monolayer cultures (MCF-7: monolayer cultures, mean surviving fraction at 2 Gy [SF2Gy] = 0.2, versus mammospheres, mean SF2Gy = 0.46, difference = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.05 to 0.47; P = .026; MDA-MB-231: monolayer cultures, mean SF2Gy = 0.5, versus mammospheres, mean SF2Gy = 0.69, difference = 0.19, 95% CI = -0.07 to 0.45; P = .09). Levels of ROS increased in both mammospheres and monolayer cultures after irradiation with a single dose of 10 Gy but were lower in mammospheres than in monolayer cultures (MCF-7 monolayer cultures: 0 Gy, mean = 1.0, versus 10 Gy, mean = 3.32, difference = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.67 to 3.98; P = .026; mammospheres: 0 Gy, mean = 0.58, versus 10 Gy, mean = 1.46, difference = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.20 to 1.56; P = .031); phosphorylation of H2AX increased in irradiated monolayer cultures, but no change was observed in mammospheres. Fractionated doses of irradiation increased activation of Notch-1 (untreated, mean = 10.7, versus treated, mean = 15.1, difference = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.7 to 6.1, P = .002) and the percentage of the cancer stem/initiating cells in the nonadherent cell population of MCF-7 monolayer cultures (untreated, mean = 3.52%, versus treated, mean = 7.5%, difference = 3.98%, 95% CI = 1.67% to 6.25%, P = .009). Conclusions: Breast cancer-initiating cells are a relatively radioresistant subpopulation of breast cancer cells and increase in numbers after short courses of fractionated irradiation. These findings offer a possible mechanism for the accelerated repopulation of tumor cells observed during gaps in radiotherapy.
BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Analyses were also conducted for cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol after stratification for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: Of the initial 142 605 men and 335 873 women included in the study, 9604 men and 21 000 women were identified with cancer after a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The crude cancer incidence rates were 7.9 per 1000 person-years in men and 7.1 per 1000 person-years in women. Associations between reduced cancer risk and increased intake of total fruits and vegetables combined and total vegetables for the entire cohort were similar (200 g/d increased intake of fruits and vegetables combined, HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96 to 0.99; 100 g/d increased intake of total vegetables, HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99); intake of fruits showed a weaker inverse association (100 g/d increased intake of total fruits, HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.00). The reduced risk of cancer associated with high vegetable intake was restricted to women (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99). Stratification by alcohol intake suggested a stronger reduction in risk in heavy drinkers and was confined to cancers caused by smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: A very small inverse association between intake of total fruits and vegetables and cancer risk was observed in this study. Given the small magnitude of the observed associations, caution should be applied in their interpretation.