This paper contributes to the AC small signal modeling and analysis of Z source converter (ZSC) in continuous conduction mode. The AC small signal model considers the dynamics introduced by Z network uniquely contained in ZSC. AC small signal model of ZSC is derived and computer simulation results are used to validate the small signal modeling method. Various applications of the AC small signal models to ZSC design and experimental verifications are presented.
Abstract A non-linear poroelastic finite element model of the lumbar spine was developed to investigate spinal response during daily dynamic physiological activities. Swelling was simulated by imposing a boundary pore pressure of 0.25 MPa at all external surfaces. Partial saturation of the disc was introduced to circumvent the negative pressures otherwise computed upon unloading. The loading conditions represented a pre-conditioning full day followed by another day of loading: 8 h rest under a constant compressive load of 350 N, followed by 16 h loading phase under constant or cyclic compressive load varying in between 1000 and 1600 N. In addition, the effect of one or two short resting periods in the latter loading phase was studied. The model yielded fairly good agreement with in-vivo and in-vitro measurements. Taking the partial saturation of the disc into account, no negative pore pressures were generated during unloading and recovery phase. Recovery phase was faster than the loading period with equilibrium reached in only ∼3 h. With time and during the day, the axial displacement, fluid loss, axial stress and disc radial strain increased whereas the pore pressure and disc collagen fiber strains decreased. The fluid pressurization and collagen fiber stiffening were noticeable early in the morning, which gave way to greater compression stresses and radial strains in the annulus bulk as time went by. The rest periods dampened foregoing differences between the early morning and late in the afternoon periods. The forgoing diurnal variations have profound effects on lumbar spine biomechanics and risk of injury.
A formal mathematical definition of chattering is proposed. Chattering phenomena are classified into three types. In particular, the first type is harmless and cannot be avoided. Chattering properties of various control approaches are considered. The dangerous second and third types of chattering phenomena are proved to be removable by proper use of high-order sliding-modes (HOSM). Fast stable actuators and sensors only generate the first type of chattering in HOSM systems and practically never affect the sliding motion. Computer simulation confirms the theoretical results.
In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques [i.e., intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) and heterodyne detection]. More specifically, we present unified exact closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer's G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer's G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer's G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer's G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.
Sustainable supply chain management is a topical area which is continuing to grow and evolve. Within supply chains, downstream distribution from producers to customers plays a significant role in the environmental performance of production supply chains. With consumer consciousness growing in the area of sustainable food supply, food distribution needs to embrace and adapt to improve its environmental performance, while still remaining economically competitive. With a particular focus on the dairy industry, a robust solution approach is presented for the design of a capacitated distribution network for a two-layer supply chain involved in the distribution of milk in Ireland. In particular the green multi-objective optimisation model minimises CO emissions from transportation and total costs in the distribution chain. These distribution channels are analysed to ensure the non-dominated solutions are distributed along the Pareto fronts. A multi-attribute decision-making approach, TOPSIS, has been used to rank the realistic feasible transportation routes resulting from the trade-offs between total costs and CO emissions. The refined realistic solution space allows the decision-makers to geographically locate the sustainable transportation routes. In addition to geographical mapping the decision maker is also presented with a number of alternative analysed scenarios which forcibly open closed distribution routes to build resiliency into the solution approach. In terms of model performance, three separate GA based optimisers have been evaluated and reported upon. In the case presented NSGA-II was found to outperform its counterparts of MOGA-II and HYBRID.
This work shows a method to quantify rotor eccentricities in synchronous machines by exploiting the unbalance caused in the split-phase currents. The paper first develops a machine model comprehensive of eccentricities and parallel circuits in the stator, by using symmetrical components. Then, the model is used for formal calculation of the unbalanced currents. Finally, the equations are reversed to obtain eccentricity degrees from current measurements. Practical formulas are given for fault assessment, only requiring machine line voltage and synchronous reactance. The method can be applied on load. This paper provides full details of the theory underlying the method. The theory also clarifies some aspects about split-phase currents, not deepened before. It is proven that the air gap flux modulation due to eccentricities, acting through additional 2(p ±1) -pole flux waves in 2p-pole machines, stimulates additional currents, which circulate in the stator and turn into 2(p ±1)-pole rotating space vectors in the complex domain. Vector trajectories have shape and amplitude dictated by eccentricity type and degree, respectively. This study is limited to 2p-pole machines with p ≥ 2. The theory is corroborated by simulations of a practical 1950-kVA generator in this paper. Experimental proofs and simulations of a laboratory 17-kVA machine are provided in a sequel of this paper.
SUMMARY This paper deals with the stiffness analysis of multibody systems using the Matrix Structural AnalysisMSA. This methodology allows us to obtain the stiffness matrix of the structure from the stiffness properties of each element. First the MSA method is described and its application is detailed using an L-structure in order to make easy its understanding. Numerical and experimental results obtained for the L-structure and a 6- R SS parallel manipulator, follow to prove the validity of the methodology.
Phase-field models based on the variational formulation for brittle fracture have recently been gaining popularity. These models have proven capable of accurately and robustly predicting complex crack behavior in both two and three dimensions. In this work we propose a fourth-order model for the phase-field approximation of the variational formulation for brittle fracture. We derive the thermodynamically consistent governing equations for the fourth-order phase-field model by way of a variational principle based on energy balance assumptions. The resulting model leads to higher regularity in the exact phase-field solution, which can be exploited by the smooth spline function spaces utilized in isogeometric analysis. This increased regularity improves the convergence rate of the numerical solution and opens the door to higher-order convergence rates for fracture problems. We present an analysis of our proposed theory and numerical examples that support this claim. We also demonstrate the robustness of the model in capturing complex three-dimensional crack behavior.
This paper provides a sketch of some of the major research thrusts in data envelopment analysis (DEA) over the three decades since the appearance of the seminal work of [Charnes, A., Cooper, W.W., Rhodes, E.L., 1978. Measuring the efficiency of decision making units. European Journal of Operational Research 2, 429–444]. The focus herein is primarily on methodological developments, and in no manner does the paper address the many excellent applications that have appeared during that period. Specifically, attention is primarily paid to (1) the various models for measuring efficiency, (2) approaches to incorporating restrictions on multipliers, (3) considerations regarding the status of variables, and (4) modeling of data variation.
This paper presents a novel approach to the coherency identification technique in interconnected power system using independent component analysis (ICA). The ICA is applied to the generator speed and bus angle data to identify the coherent areas of the system. The results of the application of ICA using simulated data from 16-machine 68-bus system model and on data gathered through U.K. University-based Wide-Area Measurement System are presented. The approach is able to identify the cluster of generators and buses following a disturbance in the system. It is also demonstrated that the approach is robust in the presence of noise in measured signal, which is an important factor to be considered for assessing the effectiveness of any measurement-based technique.