► Lichen extracts and compounds are evaluated for their photoprotective activities. ► extract and gyrophoric acid are valuable UV filters candidates. ► Salazinic acid presents characteristics of a UVA booster. Three lichen extracts and ten lichenic compounds have been screened for their photoprotective activities. The determination of their Sun Protection Factor (SPF) and Protection Factor-UVA (PF-UVA) values was done . Among them, a extract and gyrophoric acid exhibited SPF values over 5, which is better than Homosalate (SPF ≈ 4). Their photoprotective properties are only slightly modified after a 2-hours period of irradiation. Salazinic acid and presented characteristics of a UVA booster like the butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (Avobenzone) (PF-UVA ≈ 2 vs. 2.8 for Avobenzone). Salazinic acid was a better anion superoxide scavenger than ascorbic acid and none of them exhibited a photosensitizing cytotoxicity by exposing them on HaCaT cells to UVA radiations (photo-irritancy factor PIF < 5).
Effective protection from the harmful effects of UV radiation may be achieved by using sunscreens containing organic or inorganic UV filters. The number of currently available UV filters is limited and some of the allowed molecules possess limitations such as systemic absorption, endocrine disruption properties, contact and photocontact allergy induction, and low photostability. In the search for new organic UV filters we designed and synthesized a series consisting of 5-benzylidene and 5-(3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ylidene)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (hydantoin) derivatives. The photoprotective activity of the tested compounds was confirmed in methanol solutions and macrogol formulations. The most promising compounds possessed similar UV protection parameter values as selected commercially available UV filters. The compound diethyl 2,2 '-((Z)-4-((E)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)allylidene)-2,5-dioxoimidazolidine-1,3-diyl)diacetate (4g) was characterized as an especially efficient UVA photoprotective agent with a UVA PF of 6.83 +/- 0.05 and favorable photostability. Diethyl 2,2 '-((Z)-4-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-2,5-dioxo- imidazolidine-1,3-diyl)diacetate (3b) was the most promising UVB-filter, with a SPFin vitro of 3.07 +/- 0.04 and very good solubility and photostability. The main photodegradation products were geometric isomers of the parent compounds. These compounds were also shown to be non-cytotoxic at concentrations up to 50 mu M when tested on three types of human skin cells and possess no estrogenic activity, according to the results of a MCF-7 breast cancer model.
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a multifunctional hair care formulation—Hair BB Cream—containing botanical extracts of Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinifera, and Euterpe orleacea, vitamins, amino acids, UV filters, and silicones for hair treatment and prevention of UV damages. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the botanical extracts was evaluated using the DPPH and chemiluminescence methods. A tensile test, combability, shine, and image analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the formulation. To evaluate protection against UV damage, the hair strands were submitted to UV radiation without and with the application of the Hair BB Cream. The results showed that the application of the Hair BB Cream promoted a reduction in combability values and an increase in break stress and gloss values. After exposure to UV radiation, the hair treated with the BB Cream formulation showed no difference in the mechanical properties test, indicating protection against UV damage. In conclusion, the multifunctional formulation showed several benefits of single product acting in the prevention of UV damage and the treatment of hair damage. Thus, the Hair BB Cream proposed can be suggested as an effective multifunctional hair care product. The results showed that the application of the Hair BB Cream promoted a reduction in combability values when compared to the tress control and the vehicle formulation. After exposure to UV radiation, the hair treated with the BB Cream formulation showed no difference in the combability test, indicating protection against UV damage. In conclusion, the multifunctional formulation showed several benefits of a single product acting in the prevention of UV damage and the treatment of hair damaged. Thus, the Hair BB Cream proposed can be suggested as an effective multifunctional hair care product.
UV radiations can cause several irritations to the skin like sunburn, photo aging and even skin cancer. Sunscreens are widely used to protect the skin against these harmful radiations. One of the ingredients present in these sunscreens are organic molecules capable of absorbing these harmful radiations. Recently, the search is on for antioxidant molecules which can act as UV filters as they can facilitate photo protection. In this study, a computational investigation based on density functional theory (DFT) is attempted on flavanones namely pinocembrin, pinostrobin and alpinetin found in . Several quantum chemical descriptors are computed to understand the antioxidant potentiality of these molecules. Quantum chemical descriptors of these flavanone molecules are found to be comparable to that of well-known anti-oxidant quercetin. UV response of these molecules are studied using time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) formalism and by means of natural bond orbital (NBO) theory. It could be seen that these molecules exhibit a broad absorption in the UV region 270–390 nm. This falls exactly in the region of harmful UVB and UVA radiation. Thus, these molecules have the potential to absorb the harmful UV radiation. From NLMO cluster studies, the orbital contribution to absorption is explained. In flavanones, unlike other classes of flavonoids, there is a discontinuity in the electron conjugation due to the absence of C2 C3 double bond. This might be the key structural feature that leads to the absorption of these molecules to be centered around the UV region. These molecules can thus be treated as promising candidates for antioxidant UV filters in sunscreens.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation stimulates several injurious biological effects on cutaneous tissue, causing, for instance, photocarcinogenesis. Sunscreens are topical products designed to protect the skin against these harmful effects and their use must be encouraged. The addition of antioxidants, as ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound from the class of the hydroxycinnamic acids, in sunscreens could improve their sun protection factor (SPF) and prevent inflammatory reactions. Here, the clinical safety and efficacy of an association of ethylhexyl triazone and bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (UV filters) with ferulic acid were assessed. Samples had good skin biocompatibility and presented satisfactory safety profile, even in a sun-exposed condition. A synergic effect between the natural polyphenol and the UV filters was evidenced, as well as, FA increased SPF in 37% and the UVA protection factor (UVA-PF) in 26%. The data indicated that FA reinforced the broad-spectrum characteristic of the photoprotective formulations. Additionally, according to the results from the antioxidant test, it is plausible to recommend adjustments on the protocol to explicitly determine the positive effects of topical antioxidant ingredients applied over the skin. These results provided a new perspective for the development of multifunctional bioactive sunscreens using FA as a new platform.
Previous studies showed that the common UV filter substances benzophenone‐3 (BP–3), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BM–DBM), octocrylene (OCR), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS) and ethylhexyl triazone (EHT) were able to react with amino side chains of different proteins in vitro. To transfer the results to mammalian skin conditions, sunscreen products were applied on both prepared fresh porcine skin and glass plates, followed by UV irradiation and the determination of depletion of the respective UV filters. Significantly lower recoveries of the UV filters extracted from skin samples than from glass plates indicated the additional reaction of the UV filters with skin constituents, when proteins will be the most important reactants. Among the products tested, BP‐3 showed the greatest differences in recoveries between glass and skin samples of about 13% and 24% after 2 and 4 h of irradiation, respectively, followed by EHS > BM‐DBM > OCR > EHMC > EHT. The obtained results raise the question, whether the common in vitro evaluations of sunscreens, using inert substrate materials like roughened quartz or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plates are really suitable to fully replace in vivo methods, as they cannot include skin‐typical reactions. Previous studies showed that common UV filter substances like BP‐3, BM‐DBM, EHS, OCR, EHMC and EHT were able to react with amino side chains of different proteins in vitro. The present work confirms that also in the case of real skin samples, differences in the recoveries could be observed when sunscreen samples were irradiated on either glass plates or pig skin, indicating the occurrence of certain skin‐typical reactions, as the formation of protein adducts. The results were in good accordance with a recently developed HPTLC screening method, indicating a different photocontact allergenic potential of the UV filters.
Quantum yields of photodecomposition and triplet state formation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are determined for kynurenine (KN), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKN), xanthurenic acid (XAN), and kynurenine adducts of glutathione (GSH-KN), cysteine (Cys-KN), histidine (His-KN), and lysine (Lys-KN) in aqueous solutions. The highest yields of anaerobic photodecomposition were obtained for GSH-KN and His-KN adducts, which correlates with the highest triplet yields for these compounds. In aerobic conditions, the photodecomposition yields for all compounds under study increase; the highest decomposition rates were observed for His-KN and 3OHKN. The fast decomposition of the latter is attributed to the dark autoxidation of the starting compound.
The photodegradation of the ultraviolet (UV) filter octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is investigated in both dilute solution and in aggregated form. In dilute solution, the ratio of trans and cis isomers achieved at the photostationary state is solvent-dependent because of variations in the isomerization quantum yield. The two isomeric forms at the photostationary state are highly resistant to further photodegradation and no other UVA-absorbing species are formed. Aggregation of OMC, either in a neat film or in aqueous colloidal suspensions, leads to irreversible photodegradation of the molecule and the formation of multiple photoproducts. In addition to previously identified photoproducts like the UVB-absorbing cis and trans isomers and photodimers, we find photoproduct species whose absorption extends into the UVA. Characterization of the photophysical properties of these species indicates that they have long-lived excited-states (tau(f) > 1 ns, 400 nm), unlike the isomeric forms of OMC (tau(f) < 30 ps, 266 nm), and that excitation at 405 nm can sensitize the formation of singlet oxygen. These results show that the environment of OMC affects the photochemistry of the molecule and that the environmental conditions must be taken into account when considering the molecule's stability. In particular, aggregation of OMC molecules results in complex photochemistry that can produce species whose absorption extends into UVA and are capable of generating reactive oxygen species.
The aim of this study was to assess the photoprotective effects of cosmetic formulations containing UV filters, red algae, , extracts and combinations of the extract with vitamins and through the use of in vivo preclinical studies. For this study, 4 groups of 4 hairless mice each were treated with topical formulations applied on the dorsum for 5 days as follows: group 1 — control (no treatment); group 2 — application of the formulation F (sunscreen formulation containing only UV filters); group 3 — application of the formulation FA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract); and group 4 — application of the formulation FVGA (sunscreen formulation with red algae extract, and vitamins A, C and E). The effects of these formulations were evaluated by determining the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema index. Apoptosis was detected by immunohistochemical staining with anti-p53 and anti-caspase-3 antibodies. The results showed that the formulations protected the skin from erythema when exposed to UV radiation. The group that received the formulation FVGA presented a greater TEWL than did the other groups, suggesting that this formulation was involved in cell renewal. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that UV radiation caused an increase in the expression of p53 and active caspase-3, confirming that the damage caused by UV radiation exposure led to apoptosis. The application of all formulations studied resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the expression of p53 and caspase-3, with a more pronounced effect observed following treatment with FA. In conclusion, extracts from the red algae could be considered effective ingredients to be used in sunscreen formulations. The combination of vitamins A, E, C and along with red algae extracts can improve significantly the performance of the sunscreens, preventing UV-induced DNA damage and inflammation. Thus, they should be considered an interesting combination for an effective photoprotective formulation with anti-aging properties.
Photoprotection provided by topical sunscreens is expressed by the sun protection factor (SPF) which depends primarily on the UV filters contained in the product and the applied sunscreen amount. Recently, the vehicle was shown to significantly impact film thickness distribution of an applied sunscreen and sunscreen efficacy. In the present work, repartition of the UV filters within the sunscreen film upon application is investigated for its role to affect sun protection efficacy. The spatial repartition of an oil-miscible and a water-soluble UV filter within the sunscreen film was studied using confocal Raman microspectroscopy. Epidermis of pig ear skin was used as substrate for application of three different sunscreen formulations, an oil-in-water emulsion, a water-in-oil emulsion, and a clear lipo-alcoholic spray (CAS) and SPF in vitro was measured. Considerable differences in the repartition of the UV filters upon application and evaporation of volatile ingredients were found between the tested formulations. A nearly continuous phase of lipid-miscible UV filter was formed only for the WO formulation with dispersed aggregates of water-soluble UV filter. OW emulsion and CAS exhibited interspersed patches of the two UV filters, whereas the segregated UV filter domains of the latter formulation were by comparison of a much larger scale and spanned the entire thickness of the sunscreen film. CAS therefore differed markedly from the other two formulations with respect to filter repartition. This difference should be reflected in SPF when the absorption spectra of the employed UV filters are not the same. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy was shown to be a powerful technique for studying this mechanism of sun protection performance of sunscreens. Repartition of UV filters responsible for sun protection in the sunscreen film upon application depends on the formulation of the sunscreen.