The Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGap, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gap) is a National Institutes of Health-sponsored repository charged to archive, curate and distribute information produced by studies investigating the interaction of genotype and phenotype. Information in dbGaP is organized as a hierarchical structure and includes the accessioned objects, phenotypes (as variables and datasets), various molecular assay data (SNP and Expression Array data, Sequence and Epigenomic marks), analyses and documents. Publicly accessible metadata about submitted studies, summary level data, and documents related to studies can be accessed freely on the dbGaP website. Individual-level data are accessible via Controlled Access application to scientists across the globe.
The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of MEGA to enable cross -platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. MEGA X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. MEGA X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. MEGA X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasof-tware.net free of charge.
Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) is National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s database for gene-specific information. Entrez Gene maintains records from genomes which have been completely sequenced, which have an active research community to submit gene-specific information, or which are scheduled for intense sequence analysis. The content represents the integration of curation and automated processing from NCBI's Reference Sequence project (RefSeq), collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology and other databases within NCBI. Records in Entrez Gene are assigned unique, stable and tracked integers as identifiers. The content (nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, markers, phenotypes and links to citations, sequences, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities) and for bulk transfer by FTP.
Functional enrichment analysis has played a key role in the biological interpretation of high-throughput omics data. As a long-standing and widely used web application for functional enrichment analysis, WebGestalt has been constantly updated to satisfy the needs of biologists from different research areas. WebGestalt 2017 supports 12 organisms, 324 gene identifiers from various databases and technology platforms, and 150 937 functional categories from public databases and computational analyses. Omics data with gene identifiers not supported by WebGestalt and functional categories not included in the WebGestalt database can also be uploaded for enrichment analysis. In addition to the Over-Representation Analysis in the previous versions, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Network Topology-based Analysis have been added to WebGestalt 2017, providing complementary approaches to the interpretation of high-throughput omics data. The new user-friendly output interface and the GOView tool allow interactive and efficient exploration and comparison of enrichment results. Thus, WebGestalt 2017 enables more comprehensive, powerful, flexible and interactive functional enrichment analysis. It is freely available at http://www.webgestalt.org.
Reactome is a manually curated pathway annotation database for unveiling high-order biological pathways from high-throughput data. ReactomePA is an R/Bioconductor package providing enrichment analyses, including hypergeometric test and gene set enrichment analyses. A functional analysis can be applied to the genomic coordination obtained from a sequencing experiment to analyze the functional significance of genomic loci including cis -regulatory elements and non-coding regions. Comparison among different experiments is also supported. Moreover, ReactomePA provides several visualization functions to produce highly customizable, publication-quality figures. The source code and documents of ReactomePA are freely available through Bioconductor ( http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/ReactomePA ). ReactomePA is an R package providing functional analyses at the gene and sequence levels, with several visualization functions provided.
Tremendous amount of RNA sequencing data have been produced by large consortium projects such as TCGA and GTEx, creating new opportunities for data mining and deeper understanding of gene functions. While certain existing web servers are valuable and widely used, many expression analysis functions needed by experimental biologists are still not adequately addressed by these tools. We introduce GEPIA (Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis), a web-based tool to deliver fast and customizable functionalities based on TCGA and GTEx data. GEPIA provides key interactive and customizable functions including differential expression analysis, profiling plotting, correlation analysis, patient survival analysis, similar gene detection and dimensionality reduction analysis. The comprehensive expression analyses with simple clicking through GEPIA greatly facilitate data mining in wide research areas, scientific discussion and the therapeutic discovery process. GEPIA fills in the gap between cancer genomics big data and the delivery of integrated information to end users, thus helping unleash the value of the current data resources. GEPIA is available at http://gepia.cancer-pku.cn/.
SILVA (from Latin silva, forest, http://www.arb-silva.de) is a comprehensive resource for up-to-date quality-controlled databases of aligned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota domains and supplementary online services. SILVA provides a manually curated taxonomy for all three domains of life, based on representative phylogenetic trees for the small- and large-subunit rRNA genes. This article describes the improvements the SILVA taxonomy has undergone in the last 3 years. Specifically we are focusing on the curation process, the various resources used for curation and the comparison of the SILVA taxonomy with Greengenes and RDP-II taxonomies. Our comparisons not only revealed a reasonable overlap between the taxa names, but also points to significant differences in both names and numbers of taxa between the three resources.