The purpose of this article is to summarize biological monitoring information on UV-absorbing compounds, commonly referred as organic UV filters or sunscreen agents, in aquatic ecosystems. To date a limited range of species (macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds), habitats (lakes, rivers, and sea), and compounds (benzophenones and camphors) have been investigated. As a consequence there is not enough data enabling reliable understanding of the global distribution and effect of UV filters on ecosystems. Both liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry-based methods have been developed and applied to the trace analysis of these pollutants in biota, enabling the required selectivity and sensitivity. As expected, the most lipophilic compounds occur most frequently with concentrations up to 7112 ng g−1 lipids in mussels and 3100 ng g−1 lipids (homosalate) in fish. High concentrations have also been reported for 4-methylbenzilidenecamphor (up to 1800 ng g−1 lipids) and octocrylene (2400 ng g−1 lipids). Many fewer studies have evaluated the potential bioaccumulation and biomagnification of these compounds in both fresh and marine water and terrestrial food webs. Estimated biomagnification factors suggest biomagnification in predator–prey pairs, for example bird–fish and fish–invertebrates. Ecotoxicological data and preliminary environmental assessment of the risk of UV filters are also included and discussed.
The present paper describes the development of a method for the simultaneous determination of five hormonally active UV filters namely benzophenone-3 (BP3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC) by means of solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography–electron impact ionization–mass spectrometry. Under optimized conditions, this methodology achieved low method limits of detection (needed for clean waters, especially drinking water analysis), between 0.02 and 8.42 ng/L, and quantitative recovery rates higher than 73% in all cases. Inter- and intraday precision for all compounds were lower than 7% and 11%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to perform the first survey of UV absorbing compounds in tap water from the metropolitan area and the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). In addition, other types of clean water matrices (mineral bottled water, well water and tap water treated with an ion-exchange resin) were investigated as well. Results evidenced that all the UV filters investigated were detected in the water samples analyzed. The compounds most frequently found were EHMC and OC. Maximum concentrations reached in tap water were 290 (BP3), 35 (4MBC), 110 (OD-PABA), 260 (EHMC), and 170 ng/L (OC). This study constitutes the first evidence of the presence of UV filter residues in tap water in Europe.
Monitoring human exposure to chemical UV filters is essential for an accurate assessment of the health risk caused by the resorbed compounds. We developed different procedures for the determination of the prominent UV filters octocrylene (OC), avobenzone (AVO) and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS) as well as for two OC and EHS metabolites in human urine and OC, AVO and 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylic acid (CDAA) in plasma samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Since the development of a multi-method for all analytes proved to be difficult, three different procedures were established for the determination of AVO, OC and its metabolite CDAA in urine and plasma as well as for EHS and its metabolite 5-hydroxy-EHS in urine. The methods have been validated with good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. The procedures were satisfactorily applied to the determination of the target compounds in human samples collected from volunteers after sunscreen application. These new analytical procedures can provide information on the internal exposure to the UV filters OC, AVO and EHS, which has been little studied.
A new sensitive method has been successfully developed and validated for the simultaneous determination and quantification of nine estrogenic UV filters (benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-4, 4,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, ethyl-4-aminobenzoate, 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)-camphor, 3-benzylidene-camphor) in different environmental matrices. After optimisation of extraction conditions for the best recovery of polar to lipophilic compounds from fish tissue and a subsequent lipid clean-up in HPLC, fish extraction recoveries exceeded 72% for all nine UV filters. Identification and quantification of compounds was performed for lipophilic UV filters with gas chromatography–electroionisation-mass spectrometry and for polar and mid-polar compounds with liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Instrumental detection limits (IDL) varied between 5 and 260 pg injected and method detection limits (MDL) were in the low ng/g lipids range for all test compounds. The described analytical methods are shown to be useful to screen for estrogenic UV filters in environmental samples such as fish and polar organic chemical integrative samplers.
A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of two groups of personal care products, namely UV filters (oxybenzone, 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor, padimate-O, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate, and octocrylene) and polycyclic aromatic musks (galaxolide and tonalide), in fish by in vivo solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The in vivo method was validated by carrying out in vitro experiments; the method validation parameters were linearity (r 2 > 0.98), interday precision (relative standard deviations < 35.50%), limits of detection and quantification ranging from 2 to 25 ng g−1 and 5 to 70 ng g−1, respectively. The calibrations in vivo and in vitro were determined using a pre-equilibrium sampling rate calibration method. In vivo sampling rate (R s) was greater than that in vitro; therefore in vivo R s was applied to the uptake and elimination tracing under controlled laboratory conditions to avoid quantitation error. All analytes were bioaccumulated in muscle tissue over the 5-day exposure in different grades depending on their molecular structure and physicochemical properties; the most absorbed compound was tonalide and the least absorbed compound was padimate-O. The elimination rate was initially high with a rapid decrease of the analyte concentrations for the first 24 h; thereafter, the rate of elimination tended to decrease which indicated that the target analytes were bioaccumulated. To our knowledge, this is the first time that UV filters have been analyzed with in vivo SPME-GC-MS. The proposed method is a simple, miniaturized, and non-lethal alternative for the determination of personal care products in living organisms. Graphical abstract
Although there is increasing concern about residues from personal care products entering the aquatic environment and their potential to accumulate to levels that pose a health threat to humans and wildlife, we still know little about the extent and magnitude of their presence in the aquatic environment. In this study we describe a procedure for isolation, and subsequent determination, of compounds commonly added to personal care products. The compounds of interest include UV filters with the commercial name Eusolex (homosalate, 4-methylbenzylidenecamphor, benzophenone-3, octocrylene, butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate) and two common anti-microbial agents, clorophene and triclosan. Water samples were filtered, acidified, and extracted by use of solid-phase extraction. Extracted compounds were then derivatised before analysis by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy. By use of our method we obtained limits of detection of 13–266 ng L−1 for UV filters, and 10–186 ng L−1 for triclosan and clorophene. Recoveries were 82–98% for deionised water and 50–98% for natural water (seawater, pool water, lake water, and river water). Samples collected in Slovenia included seventeen recreational waters (seawater, pool water, lake water, and river water; August 2004) and four wastewaters (January 2005). The most abundant UV filter was benzophenone-3 (11–400 ng L−1). Of the two anti-microbial agents studied, trace amounts, only, of triclosan were present in the river Kolpa (68 ng L−1) and in an hospital effluent (122 ng L−1).
This paper describes the development of a multi-residue method for the determination of 36 emerging organic pollutants (26 biocides, 5 UV-filters and 5 benzothiazoles) in raw and treated wastewater, activated sludge and surface water using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The target analytes were enriched from water samples adjusted to pH 6 by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Oasis HLB 200 mg cartridges and eluted with a mixture of methanol and acetone (60/40, v/v). Extraction of freeze-dried sludge samples was accomplished by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using a mixture of methanol and water (50/50, v/v) as extraction solvent followed by SPE. LC–tandem MS detection was compared using electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive and negative ionization mode. ESI exhibited strong ion suppression for most target analytes, while APCI was generally less susceptible to ion suppression but partially leading to ion enhancement of up to a factor of 10. In general, matrix effects could be compensated using stable isotope-labeled surrogate standards, indicated by relative recoveries ranging from 70% to 130%. In wastewater, activated sludge and surface water up to 33 analytes were detected. Maximum concentrations up to 5.1 and 3.9 μg L were found in raw wastewater for the water-soluble UV-filters benzophenone-4 (BZP-4) and phenylbenz-imidazole sulfonic acid (PBSA), respectively. For the first time, the anti-dandruff climbazole was detected in raw wastewater and in activated sludge with concentrations as high as 1.4 μg L and 1.2 μg g TSS , respectively. Activated sludge is obviously a sink for four benzothiazoles and two isothiazolones, as concentrations were detected in activated sludge between 120 ng g TSS (2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, OIT) to 330 ng g TSS (benzothiazole-2-sulfonic acid, BTSA).
A method for the determination of 11 UV-filter compounds in sludge has been developed and evaluated. The procedure includes the use of non-porous polymeric membranes in combination with pressurised liquid extraction (PLE). Firstly, the solid sample, wetted with the extraction solvent, was enclosed into tailor-made bags prepared with low density polyethylene. Secondly, these packages were submitted to a conventional PLE (70 °C, 4 cycles of 5 min static time). Finally, the analytes were determined by liquid chromatography–atmospheric pressure photoionisation–tandem mass spectrometry. The main advantage of this procedure is the reduction of time, solvent and labour effort ought to the combination of extraction and clean-up in a single step. Although the extraction is not quantitative (thus, standard addition is recommended for quantification) selectivity is clearly gained using the membrane as a consequence of the differences of permeation and transport through the membrane between the analytes and other sample matrix components. The optimised protocol provides limits of detection ranging from 0.3 ng g (ethylhexyl dimethyl -aminobenzoate (OD-PABA)) to 25 ng g (ethylhexyl triazone (EHT)) with only 0.5 g of sludge sample. All the studied UV filters were found in the samples at concentration levels between 1.4 and 2479 ng g , emphasising the high adsorption potential of this kind of environmental pollutants onto solid samples such as sludge. Also, this method has permitted the determination of seven of the studied UV filters in sludge samples for the first time.
A new analytical method for the determination of four hydroxylated benzophenone UV filters (i.e. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (DHB), 2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (DHMB) and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone (THB)) in sea water samples is presented. The method is based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) determination. The variables involved in the DLLME process were studied. Under optimized conditions, 1000 μL of acetone (disperser solvent) containing 60 μL of chloroform (extraction solvent) were injected into 5 mL of aqueous sample adjusted to pH 4 and containing 10% NaCl. Before injecting into the GC–MS system, the DLLME extracts were evaporated under an air stream and then reconstituted with N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), thus allowing the target analytes to be converted into their trimethylsilyl derivatives. The best conditions for the derivatization reaction were 75 °C and 30 min. High enrichment factors for all the target analytes (ranging from 58 to 64) and good repeatability (RSD around 6%) were obtained. The limits of detection were in the range of 32–50 ng L , depending on the analyte. The recoveries obtained by using the proposed DLLME–GC–MS method evidenced the presence of matrix effects for some of the target analytes, and thereby the standard addition calibration method was employed. Finally, the validated method was applied to the analysis of sea water samples.
An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 19 emergent compounds in water matrices, six UV-filters (UVFs), five nitro, six polycyclic and two macrocyclic musks. The target compounds were extracted by a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) approach, using 2-propanol as the dispersive solvent and 1,1,2-trichloroethane as the extractant solvent. The extracts were then analysed by gas chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). This methodology was successfully validated for the analyses of the target compounds in five types of aqueous samples (tap, river and sea water and influent and effluent wastewater). Recoveries of the analytes based on the surrogate correction ranged from 80 to 120%, with a good repeatability (relative standard deviations less than 10%). The method limit of detection ranges from 0.1 ng L (octocrylene (OC), celestolide (ADBI)) to 20.0 ng L (benzophenone (BZ)). Both UVFs and synthetic musk compounds (SMCs) were detected in all matrices. Higher concentrations were found in wastewaters (total mean concentration in influents of 6248 ng L and 3856 ng L in effluents), followed by river water (159 ng L ). Only BZ was detected in one of the analysed seawater samples and none of the compounds were detected in tap water. The most detected UVFs among all matrices were BZ and drometrizole (DTS) and tonalide (AHTN) and galaxolide (HHCB) within the SMCs class. Among all matrices, wastewater was the one with higher number of compounds found sample (both UVFs and SMCs).