The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web.
The purpose of this article is to summarize biological monitoring information on UV-absorbing compounds, commonly referred as organic UV filters or sunscreen agents, in aquatic ecosystems. To date a limited range of species (macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds), habitats (lakes, rivers, and sea), and compounds (benzophenones and camphors) have been investigated. As a consequence there is not enough data enabling reliable understanding of the global distribution and effect of UV filters on ecosystems. Both liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry-based methods have been developed and applied to the trace analysis of these pollutants in biota, enabling the required selectivity and sensitivity. As expected, the most lipophilic compounds occur most frequently with concentrations up to 7112 ng g−1 lipids in mussels and 3100 ng g−1 lipids (homosalate) in fish. High concentrations have also been reported for 4-methylbenzilidenecamphor (up to 1800 ng g−1 lipids) and octocrylene (2400 ng g−1 lipids). Many fewer studies have evaluated the potential bioaccumulation and biomagnification of these compounds in both fresh and marine water and terrestrial food webs. Estimated biomagnification factors suggest biomagnification in predator–prey pairs, for example bird–fish and fish–invertebrates. Ecotoxicological data and preliminary environmental assessment of the risk of UV filters are also included and discussed.
We performed a trace analytical study covering nine hormonally active UV-filters by LC–MS/MS and GC–MS in river water and biota. Water was analysed at 10 sites above and below wastewater treatment plants in the river Glatt using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Four UV-filters occurred in the following order of decreasing concentrations; benzophenone-4 (BP-4) > benzophenone-3 (BP-3) > 3-(4-methyl)benzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) > 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC). BP-4 ranged from 0.27 to 24.0 μg/POCIS, BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC up to 0.1 μg/POCIS. Wastewater was the most important source. Levels decreased with higher river water flow. No significant in-stream removal occurred. BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC were between 6 and 68 ng/L in river water. EHMC was accumulated in biota. In all 48 macroinvertebrate and fish samples from six rivers lipid-weighted EHMC occurred up to 337 ng/g, and up to 701 ng/g in 5 cormorants, suggesting food-chain accumulation. UV-filters are found to be ubiquitous in aquatic systems. Several UV-filters from cosmetics and materials protection occur in rivers and EHMC accumulates in biota.
In this study the bioaccumulation kinetics of organic UV filters, such as 4-MBC, BP-3, BP-4, OC and OD-PABA in wild mussels was investigated. The uptake and accumulation of waterborne 4-MBC, BP-4 and OC was very rapid, and after only 24 h of exposure to 1 μg L , the tissular concentrations were 418, 263 and 327 μg kg d.w., respectively. The kinetics of bioaccumulation of BP-4 and OC significantly fitted to an asymptotic model with BCF values of 905 L kg and 2210 L kg , respectively. Measured bioaccumulation of the hydrophilic chemical BP-4 was much higher than predicted by K -based bioconcentration models, which would lead to a marked underestimation of actual risk. On the other hand, the patterns of uptake found for BP-3 and OD-PABA suggest biotransformation ability of mussels for these two chemicals.
Eight organic UV filters and stabilizers were quantitatively determined in wastewater sludge and effluent, landfill leachate, sediments, and marine and freshwater biota. Crab, prawn and cod from Oslofjord, and perch, whitefish and burbot from Lake Mjøsa were selected in order to evaluate the potential for trophic accumulation. All of the cod livers analysed were contaminated with at least 1 UV filter, and a maximum concentration of almost 12 μg/g wet weight for octocrylene (OC) was measured in one individual. 80% of the cod livers contained OC, and approximately 50% of cod liver and prawn samples contained benzophenone (BP3). Lower concentrations and detection frequencies were observed in freshwater species and the data of most interest is the 4 individual whitefish that contained both BP3 and ethylhexylmethoxycinnamate (EHMC) with maximum concentrations of almost 200 ng/g wet weight. The data shows a difference in the loads of UV filters entering receiving water dependent on the extent of wastewater treatment. Primary screening alone is insufficient for the removal of selected UV filters (BP3, Padimate, EHMC, OC, UV-234, UV-327, UV-328, UV-329). Likely due in part to the hydrophobic nature of the majority of the UV filters studied, particulate loading and organic carbon content appear to be related to concentrations of UV filters in landfill leachate and an order of magnitude difference in these parameters correlates with an order of magnitude difference in the effluent concentrations of selected UV filters ( ). From the data, it is possible that under certain low flow conditions selected organic UV filters may pose a risk to surface waters but under the present conditions the risk is low, but some UV filters will potentially accumulate through the trophic food chain.
Most current bioexposure assessments for UV filters focus on contaminants concentrations in fish from river and lake. To date there is not information available on the occurrence of UV filters in marine mammals. This is the first study to investigate the presence of sunscreen agents in tissue liver of Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei), a species under special measures for conservation. Fifty six liver tissue samples were taken from dead individuals accidentally caught or found stranded along the Brazilian coastal area (six states). The extensively used octocrylene, 2-ethylhexy1-2-cyano-3,3-dipheny1-2-propenoate, (OCT) was frequently found in the samples investigated (21 out of 56) at concentrations in the range 89-782 ng.g(-1) lipid weight. Sao Paulo was found to be the most polluted area (70% frequency of detection). Nevertheless, the highest concentration was observed in the dolphins from Rio Grande do Sul (42% frequency of detection within that area). These findings constitute the first data reported on the occurrence of UV filters in marine mammals worldwide.
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in personal care products and occur ubiquitously in the aquatic environment. In this study, concentrations of seven commonly used organic UV filters were determined in seawater, sediment and five coral species collected from the eastern Pearl River Estuary of South China Sea. Five compounds, benzophenone-1, 3, and 8 (BP-1, 3, and 8), octocrylene (OC) and octyl dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (ODPABA), were detected in the coral tissues with the highest detection frequencies (>65%) and concentrations (31.8 +/- 8.6 and 24.7 +/- 10.6 ng/g ww, respectively) found for BP-3 and BP-8. Significantly higher concentrations of BP-3 were observed in coral tissues in the wet season, indicating that higher inputs of sunscreen agents could be attributed to the increased coastal recreational activities. Accumulation of UV filters was only observed in soft coral tissues with bioaccumulation factors (logio-values) ranging from 2.21 to 3.01. The results of a preliminary risk assessment indicated that over 20% of coral samples from the study sites contained BP-3 concentrations exceeding the threshold values for causing larval deformities and mortality in the worst-case scenario. Higher probabilities of negative impacts of BP-3 on coral communities are predicted to occur in wet season.
Ultraviolet (UV) filters are commonly used compounds in personal care products and polymer based materials, as they can absorb solar energy in the UVA and UVB spectrum. However, they are able to bind to hormone receptors and have several and different types of hormonal activities determined by assays. One of the aims of this work was to measure the hormonal and cytotoxic activities of four frequently used UV filters using bioluminescence based yeast test organisms. Using BLYES and BLYAS strains allowed the rapid and reliable detection of agonist and antagonist hormonal activities, whereas BLYR strain served to measure cytotoxicity. Results confirmed that all tested UV filters show multiple hormonal activities. Cytotoxicity is detected only in the case of benzophenone-3. Research data on the toxic effects of benzophenone-3, especially on aquatic organisms are scarce, so further investigations were carried out regarding its cytotoxic and teratogenic effects on bacteria and zebrafish ( ) embryos, respectively. Results revealed the cytotoxicity of benzophenone-3 not only to yeasts but to bacteria, as well as its ability to influence zebrafish embryo hatching and development.
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18–1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and 70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment.