UV-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are widely used for protection against UV radiation in sunscreens and in a variety of cosmetic products and materials. Depending on the breadth and factor of UV protection, they are added as single compounds or as a combination thereof. Some UV filters have estrogenic activity, but their activity and interactions in mixtures are largely unknown. In this work, we analyzed 8 commonly used UV filters, which are pure or partial hERα agonists, for their estrogenic activity in equieffective mixtures in a recombinant yeast assay carrying the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα). Mixtures of two, four and eight UV filters alone, or in combination with 17 β estradiol (E2), were assessed at different effect levels and no-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC). Predictions of the joint effects of these mixtures were calculated by employing the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) model. Most binary mixtures comprising of pure hERα agonists showed a synergistic activity at all mixture combinations. Only in combination with benzophenone-1, antagonistic activity was observed at some effect levels. All mixtures of four or eight, pure or pure and partial hERα agonists, alone or including E2, showed synergistic activity at concentrations giving an increase of 10% of basal activity (BC10). This occurred even at concentrations that were at the NOEC level of each single compound. Hence, there were substantial mixture effects even though each UV filter was present at its NOEC level. These results show that significant interactions occur in UV filter mixtures, which is important for the hazard and risk assessments of these personal care products.
Background: To explain observed differences during SPF determination using either an in vivo or in vitro method, we hypothesized on the presence of ingredients having anti-inflammatory properties. Methodology/Principal Findings: To research our hypothesis, we studied the 21 UV filters both available on the market and authorized by European regulations and subjected these filters to the phorbol-myristate-acetate test using mice. We then catalogued the 13 filters demonstrating a significant anti-inflammatory effect with edema inhibition percentages of more than 70%. The filters are: diethylhexyl butamido triazone (92%), benzophenone-5 and titanium dioxide (90%), benzophenone-3 (83%), octocrylene and isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (82%), PEG-25 PABA and homosalate (80%), octyl triazone and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (78%), octyl dimethyl PABA (75%), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexylbenzoate (70%). These filters were tested at various concentrations, including their maximum authorized dose. We detected a dose-response relationship. Conclusions/Significance: The anti-inflammatory effect of a sunscreen ingredient may affect the in vivo SPF value. Citation: Couteau C, Chauvet C, Paparis E, Coiffard L (2012) UV Filters, Ingredients with a Recognized Anti-Inflammatory Effect. PLoS ONE 7(12): e46187. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046187
This study focused on the determination of seven volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) and eleven UV-filters (UVFs) in beach sand from the Oporto's region (Portugal). A QuEChERS methodology (“Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe”) was used to extract VMSs from the sand, which has never been employed before. To extract the UVFs, a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Twenty-three beach sand samples were analysed, from two campaigns – summer/winter. VMSs were found in all the samples with concentrations ranging from 0.007 ± 0.001 to 17.8 ± 0.9 ng g , while UVFs in summer samples from 0.030 ± 0.001 to 373 ± 17 ng g . Cyclic VMSs and octocrylene (OC) were detected in higher concentrations. In general, higher levels were detected in summer than winter. Hazard quotients were determined and 3-(4′-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EMC) and benzophenone-3 (BP3) presented values >1, which may indicate that they may pose an ecotoxicological risk.
Benzophenones (BPs), filtering out both UVA and UVB rays, are widely used in a great variety of sunscreens and personal care products. However, they have not been extensively studied for the mechanisms of UV-absorbing toxicity. In this study, we used CPZ (chlorpromazine) as a positive control and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as a negative control, and the phototoxic of BP-1, BP-3 and BP-4 were investigated in vitro assays using three cell types under different UV exposure conditions. This was followed by setting up a theoretical model, which was adopted to predict and compare the phototoxicity. It was found that Balb/c 3T3 (Balb/c 3T3 fibroblast cell lines) showed sensitivity to UVA+ and UVB+ exposure, while the HS68 (human HS68 fibroblast cell lines) to UVA+ and the HaCaT (human HaCaT keratinocyte cell lines) to UVB+. The test compound, BP-1, was detected to be phototoxic at UVA+ conditions, but BP-3 and BP-4 were discovered to be non-phototoxic at UVA+ conditions. This demonstrated that BP-1, BP-3 and BP-4 remained low-risk chemicals under UVB+ condition. The theoretical calculation of the energy gap (E ) showed BP-1(E ) > BP-3(E ) > BP-4(E ).
Kynurenines (KNs) are natural UV filters of the human eye lens, protecting the eye tissues from solar UV radiation. Key points of their effective protection are the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in the excited state and the fast dissipation of absorbed light energy into heat via the intermolecular H-bonds. Herein we report that the introduction of an unsaturated double bond in the amino acid side chain, operating as an ICT-enhancing electron donor group, drastically accelerates the internal conversion (IC) due to a conical intersection (CI) between the potential energy surfaces of the excited and ground states. Our photophysical study of a deaminated KN (carboxyketoalkene, CKA), an intrinsic product of KN thermal decomposition, demonstrates an unusually fast excited state decay in a broad range of solvents of different polarity and proticity. The detailed analysis of interactions in the excited state by different computational techniques revealed that the changes in molecular structure - the twist of the carbonyl group from the plane of the aromatic ring followed by the formation of two mutually orthogonal conjugated substructures - are responsible for the CI of the excited and ground state potential energy surfaces. Intermolecular H-bonds facilitate the transition to the CI, but do not play a crucial role in the fast decay of the excited state. An extremely fast and efficient IC in CKA opens the way for the design of new types of organic UV filters and their applications in material science, cosmetics and medicine.
Organic UV filters are used worldwide in various personal care products as well as textiles, paints, plastic, food, and adhesives. They are main ingredients in sunscreen lotions that are used heavily by beachgoers in the summer season. There is thus an increasing concern regarding the fate of organic UV filters in the environment and their impact on living organisms. Many of the UV filters in use are hydrophobic and are expected to accumulate in the sediment phase in aquatic systems, but this has yet to be validated in situ. We targeted the UV filters benzophenone 3 (BP3), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), diethylhexyl butamido triazone (DBT), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine (BEMT), and methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (MBBT) in a freshwater lake and in a coastal bay in order to understand their distribution during summer 2016. Further, we examined their environmental partitioning by collecting samples from the surface water, the sediment phase, and water surface microlayer (SML). We show for the first time the presence of DBT, BEMT, and MBBT in environmental matrices (water, SML, and sediment). Notably, these UV filters were detected at low amounts in surface waters with maximum concentrations of 9.9 ng/L for DBT, 18.4 ng/L for BEMT, and below detection limits for MBBT and somewhat higher concentrations in the SML, with maximum concentrations of 43.3 ng/L for DBT, 5625.4 ng/L for BEMT, and 45.6 ng/L for MBBT. These filters were detected at even greater concentrations in the sediments, with maximum concentrations of 652.6 ng/g for DBT, 115.0 ng/g for BEMT, and 75.2 ng/g for MBBT (dry weight sediment). We also performed controlled laboratory experiments to determine their partitioning behavior, and we verified the actual solubility of many of the filters. This will help in determining the environmental fate and finally lead to a better risk assessment of these compounds. Together, these results corroborate the hypothesis that hydrophobic UV filters accumulate in the sediment phase and highlight the importance of discerning whether these UV filters impact the benthic community and their potential for bioaccumulation.
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a multifunctional hair care formulation—Hair BB Cream—containing botanical extracts of Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinifera, and Euterpe orleacea , vitamins, amino acids, UV filters, and silicones for hair treatment and prevention of UV damages. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the botanical extracts was evaluated using the DPPH and chemiluminescence methods. A tensile test, combability, shine, and image analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the formulation. To evaluate protection against UV damage, the hair strands were submitted to UV radiation without and with the application of the Hair BB Cream. The results showed that the application of the Hair BB Cream promoted a reduction in combability values and an increase in break stress and gloss values. After exposure to UV radiation, the hair treated with the BB Cream formulation showed no difference in the mechanical properties test, indicating protection against UV damage. In conclusion, the multifunctional formulation showed several benefits of single product acting in the prevention of UV damage and the treatment of hair damage. Thus, the Hair BB Cream proposed can be suggested as an effective multifunctional hair care product. The results showed that the application of the Hair BB Cream promoted a reduction in combability values when compared to the tress control and the vehicle formulation. After exposure to UV radiation, the hair treated with the BB Cream formulation showed no difference in the combability test, indicating protection against UV damage. In conclusion, the multifunctional formulation showed several benefits of a single product acting in the prevention of UV damage and the treatment of hair damaged. Thus, the Hair BB Cream proposed can be suggested as an effective multifunctional hair care product.
The impacts of three commonly used benzophenone-type UV filters including benzophenone (BP), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone (BP3), and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone-5-sulfonicacid (BP4) were assayed in vitro using a cladoceran Daphnia carinata. The 24-h LC50 on D. carinata calculated for BP, BP3, and BP4 was 8.37, 2.18, and 82.27 mg l−1, respectively. BP3 and BP4 significantly impacted on the time of D. carinata first molting at a concentration of 0.1 µg l−1. BP4 had an inhibitory effect on D. carinata molting and BP3 had an inhibitory effect on D. carinata pregnancy at a concentration of 1 µg l−1. Furthermore, BP4 significantly inhibited the number of D. carinata first brood per female at a concentration of 10 µg l−1. All of the endpoints from acute and chronic toxicity demonstrated that the hydroxy group in BP3 and BP4 significantly enhanced the toxic effect compared to BP. Therefore, the toxicity of BP-type UV filters is related to their molecular structure.
Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are used in personal care products for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment in the production and consumption processes, little is known about their ecotoxicology effects. The acute toxicity and potential ecological risk of UV filters benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and benzophenone-4 (BP-4) on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and Brachydanio rerio were analyzed in the present study. The EC50 values (96 h) of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris were 2.98 and 201.00 mg/L, respectively. The 48 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on D. magna were 1.09 and 47.47 mg/L, respectively. The 96 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on B. rerio were 3.89 and 633.00 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of a mixture of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris, D. magna, and B. rerio all showed antagonistic effects. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations of BP-3 and BP-4 by the assessment factor method were 1.80 x 10(-3) and 0.47 mg/L, respectively, by assessment factor (AF) method, which were both lower than the concentrations detected in the environment at present, verifying that BP-3 and BP-4 remain low-risk chemicals to the aquatic ecosystem.
Ultraviolet absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are widely used in personal care products for protecting human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment during production and consumption processes, little is known about their genotoxicity effects. Our previous studies have shown that benzophenone-type UV filters exhibited acute toxicity on three species of aquatic organisms. Mutagenesis by benzophenone (BP) and benzophenone-1(BP-1) was tested in the present study by the Salmonella typhimurium/reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). All the positive reverse mutations occurred in the absence of the S9 liver extract system for both chemicals. From BP, positive mutation effects on the TA102 strain at doses of 0.05 g/plate and 0.5 g/plate were detected. From BP-1, positive mutation effects on the TA97 strain at doses of 0.05 g/plate and 0.5 g/plate, and on the TA100 strain at a dose of 0.5 g/plate, were detected. A mixture of BP and BP-1 exhibited mutagenicity on the TA97 and TA100 strains. For the TA97 strain, the positive mutation results were detected at 10% and 50% of the mixture. For the TA100 strain, the results were detected when the mixture was at 5% and 10%. In the mixture at 5%, the concentrations of BP and BP-1 were 3.5 g/plate and 14 g/plate, respectively. In the 10% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 7 g/plate and 28 g/plate, respectively. In the 50% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 35 g/plate and 140 g/plate, respectively. The mixture test results suggested that there was antagonism in mutagenicity between BP and BP-1.