The contents of 18 permitted chemical UV filters in 75 sunscreen products have been determined to check the compliance of these products with the EU Cosmetic Directive, as well as to generate data for quantitative exposure assessments. 81% of the products were found to contain 14 of the target chemical UV filters. The remaining products contained only the physical UV‐filters titanium oxide and zinc oxide, which were not determined in the present study. Maximum content (29.3%) of chemical UV filters was found in a product that contained 6 of the target UV filters. Octyl methoxycinnamate (1.4–4.7%) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (0.4–4.8%) were the most frequently used UV filters, present, respectively, in 49% and 44% of the investigated products. Correlation between declared sun protection factor (SPF) and the contents of chemical UV filters in the respective products was not significant (correlation coefficient 0.5362). The content of UV filters in all products complied with the maximum allowed concentration of these according to EU Cosmetic Directive.
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is harmful to living organisms, causing damage to macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids. Depending on the wavelength, the injury could be direct or indirect through reactive oxygen intermediates, so it is desirable to find compounds that can reduce both. Many organic chemicals used in commercial sunscreen possess estrogenic activity in vivo. In this report we analyzed recent patents related to UV sunscreens of microbial origin, in particular mycosporines (MYC) and mycosporine-like aminoacids (MAA). Both are promising natural alternatives for both direct (UV-absorption) and indirect (antioxidant) protection, given they show strong photostability and absence of cytotoxicity. It becomes clear that although the search for natural photoprotective molecules is relatively recent, efforts have been invested mainly in marine environments, remaining still many potential photoprotective molecules to find in other type of habitats. Furthermore, unicellular microorganisms have several advantages for the production of metabolites of interest, since they improve the production costs due to its simplicity of culture and easy genetic manipulation. The knowledge of the biosynthesis pathway of MYC and MAA is essential to improve rationally their expression levels. Currently, only the MAA pathway in bacteria has been reported, remaining the MYC pathway unclear. Future perspectives include the heterologous expression of MYC and/or MAA in industrially friendly microorganisms (bacteria and yeast) in order to co-produce different UV-protective molecules and thus cover a broader UV spectrum and simplify the production process.
The ultraviolet (UV) filter 3-benzylidene camphor (3BC) is used in personal care products and in a number of materials for UV protection. 3BC has been shown in vitro and in vivo in fish to be estrogenic, but possible effects on fertility and reproduction are unknown. In this study we evaluate whether 3BC affects reproduction of fish Pimephales promelas. After a preexposure period of 21 days, reproductively mature fathead minnows were exposed to increasing concentrations of 3BC for 21 days in a static-renewal procedure. Actual 3BC concentrations decreased to 23% of initial levels and median concentrations were 0.5, 3, 33, 74, and 285 mu g/l. 3BC affected reproduction in a dose-dependent manner with weak effects on fecundity at 3 mu g/l, a significant decrease at 74 mu g/l, and a cessation of reproduction at 285 mu g/l. 3BC was accumulated in fish with an average bioconcentration factor of 313 +/- 151. Dose-dependent demasculinization in secondary sex characteristics of male fish and dose-dependent induction of plasma vitellogenin occurred, which was significant at 74 mu g/l and higher. 3BC had a profound and dose-dependent effect on the histology of gonads of male and female fish at 3 mu g/l and higher. At 74 and 285 mu g/l, oocyte and spermatocyte development was inhibited in male and female gonads. Testes of exposed males had much fewer spermatogenic cysts, and ovaries of exposed females had much fewer mature but more atretic, follicles. This study shows significant effects of the UV filter 3BC on fertility, gonadal development, and reproduction of fish after short-term exposure that may have negative consequences on the population level.
Ultraviolet radiation is causally involved in induction of skin cancer, premature skin aging and photodermatoses. The longing of our western society for a "healthy tanning" as well as the unbroken trend to spend the holidays in sunny regions lead to the fact that human skin is increasingly exposed to ultraviolet radiation and its detrimental effects. Because of the socio-political importance of the vacation period as the "most beautiful and most important time of the year", effective prevention of these unwanted UV effects has an enormous importance to the general population. In this article the most important methods for effective sun protection are critically discussed.
Background: This work is part of a broader research that focuses on ocular health. Three outlines are the basis of the pyramid that comprehend the research as a whole: authors' previous work, which has provided the public to self-check their own sunglasses regarding the ultraviolet protection compatible to their category; Brazilian national survey in order to improve nationalization of sunglasses standards; and studies conducted on revisiting requirements of worldwide sunglasses standards, in which this work is inserted. It is still controversial on the literature the ultraviolet (UV) radiation effects on the ocular media, but the World Health Organization has established safe limits on the exposure of eyes to UV radiation based on the studies reported in literature. Sunglasses play an important role in providing safety, and their lenses should provide adequate UV filters. Regarding UV protection for ocular media, the resistance-to-irradiance test for sunglasses under many national standards requires irradiating lenses for 50 uninterrupted hours with a 450 W solar simulator. This artificial aging test may provide a corresponding evaluation of exposure to the sun. Methods: Calculating the direct and diffuse solar irradiance at a vertical surface and the corresponding radiant exposure for the entire year, we compare the latter with the 50-h radiant exposure of a 450 W xenon arc lamp from a solar simulator required by national standards. Results: Our calculations indicate that this stress test is ineffective in its present form. Conclusions: We provide evidence of the need to re-evaluate the parameters of the tests to establish appropriate safe limits for UV irradiance. Significance: This work is potentially significant for scientists and legislators in the field of sunglasses standards to improve the requirements of sunglasses quality and safety.
Background UVA induces tissue damage via the production of radical oxygen species. Adding antioxidants to UV filters in sunscreens is a novel photoprotective strategy. The topical application of antioxidants in sunscreen can potentially neutralize the UVA-induced free radicals. Objectives We sought to assess the degree of free radical protection offered by sunscreens with antioxidants and attempted to differentiate the contribution of free radical protection from that of the UV filters. Method Twelve sunscreen products were purchased. The degree of UVA protection (UVA-PF) was measured via an in vitro assay according to a European guideline (Colipa). In addition, an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy-based assay was used to measure the radical skin protection factor (RSF) and antioxidant power (AP) of each product. Results The sun protection factor (SPF) values of the sunscreens ranged from 15 to 55, and the UVA-PF values ranged from 2.4 to 28.2. The RSF values ranged from 2.4 to 27.1. There is a high correlation between RSF and UVA-PF. The AP values for nearly all the products were 0, and two products (#4 and #9) had very low AP values of 16 and 12, respectively. Limitations The study only evaluated a small number of sunscreen products, and only ex vivo and in vitro methods were used to assess the products. Conclusions The idea of combining UV filters with antioxidants is appealing. Current sunscreen products on the market offer free radical protection, but the majority of the radical protection is from UV filters rather than antioxidants.
The photostabilizing ability of grape seed extract on three common sunscreen absorbers, 2‐ethylhexyl‐p‐methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone‐3 (BP3) and tert‐butylmethoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), was investigated. Samples were exposed to simulated solar radiation and monitored by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The chemical composition of the grape seed extract was determined by GC‐MS and HPLC‐MS, and the major secondary metabolites were found to be epicatechin and catechin. Exposure of the extract to UV radiation increased the UV absorption capacity of the extract. All sunscreens showed an improved photostability in the extract. The inherent photo‐instability of BMDBM when exposed to UV radiation was almost eliminated in the presence of grape seed extract. A mixture of all three sunscreens in the extract showed very high photostability and a red shift covering the entire UVB and UVA regions, thereby improving the broad‐spectrum protection. The incorporation of grape seed extract in sunscreen and other cosmetic formulations for topical application boosts photoprotection by stabilizing the UV filters and enhancing broad‐spectrum coverage. This in turn helps in reducing the amounts of absorbers and other additives incorporated in a sunscreen product and consequently lowers the risk of an unprecedented buildup of photoproducts whose toxicities are currently unknown. The grape seed extract improves the photostability of the commonly used sunscreens by firstly, contributing to ultraviolet absorption, greatly decreasing photoloss and improving the absorption range of the mixture to the visible region. Secondly, the broad spectrum photoprotection observed with grape seed extract‐single sunscreen mixture, eliminates the need for incorporation of several organic sunscreens to achieve the same. This aspect reduces amounts of potential photoproducts, thus, may increase safety index of final commercial product.
Sputtered deposited thin films of AlN:Pr and GaN:Pr emit in ultraviolet–visible and visible regions of the spectrum, respectively, under electron excitation in cathodoluminescence apparatus. The goal is to study the ultraviolet emission from Pr when doped in nitride semiconductor hosts. Luminescence peaks at a wavelength of 295 nm (4.2 eV), 335 nm (3.7 eV) and 385 nm (3.24 eV) are observed as a result from S → G , S → D and S → I transitions, respectively. However the S → G and S → D transitions are not observed when Pr is doped in GaN host. The bandgap of GaN absorbs the ultraviolet radiation emitted from Pr and hence GaN can be used as ultraviolet filter for radiation shielding and protection purposes. AlN is transparent to ultraviolet due to its wide bandgap of 6.2 eV.