Introduction: Cancers of the skin are the most common cancers in humans, with Australia and New Zealand having the world’s highest incidence. Primary prevention campaigns advise people to apply sunscreen to exposed body sites when outdoors. However, despite growing evidence that cumulative sub‐erythemal exposures cause mutational damage, and trial data demonstrating benefit from daily sunscreen use, current policies do not consider the hazards of incidental (everyday) sun exposure. Thus, a Sunscreen Summit was convened to review the evidence and update the policies for people living in Australia and New Zealand. Results: After reviewing the benefits and risks of sunscreen application, the policy group concluded that people living in Australia and New Zealand should be advised to apply sunscreen to the face/head/neck and all parts of the body not covered by clothing on all days when the ultraviolet index is forecast to reach three or greater, irrespective of their anticipated activities. For planned outdoors activities, sunscreen should be used alongside other sun protection measures. Conclusions: People living in Australia and New Zealand are now advised to apply sunscreen every day when the UV index is predicted to reach 3 or above. Implications for public health: Increased use of sunscreen as part of the daily routine to reduce incidental sun exposure will lead to decreased incidence of skin cancer in the future.
This work reports the synthesis of new polymer−titania hybrids, where the organic phase is constituted by polyesters such as poly(ϵ-caprolactone), poly(d,l-lactic acid), and poly(l-lactic acid). In these hybrids, very strong interaction between the organic and inorganic domains is obtained through transesterification of ester moieties by titanium atoms, which leads to organotitanium esters. The influence of the structure of the polyester on the mode of its interaction with titania is also investigated. Hybrids with a range of solid-state properties, which depend on the starting polymer characteristics and on the inorganic-phase content, are obtained. Hybrids are applied as coatings on a variety of substrates. They show intrinsic optical transparency and the ability to completely block UV radiation in the range UVB and UV-A2. In particular, when applied to different textiles, the hybrids impart radiopacity to the fabrics, opening new perspectives in the field of personal protective clothing and equipment.
Ultraviolet radiation is causally involved in induction of skin cancer, premature skin aging and photodermatoses. The longing of our western society for a "healthy tanning" as well as the unbroken trend to spend the holidays in sunny regions lead to the fact that human skin is increasingly exposed to ultraviolet radiation and its detrimental effects. Because of the socio-political importance of the vacation period as the "most beautiful and most important time of the year", effective prevention of these unwanted UV effects has an enormous importance to the general population. In this article the most important methods for effective sun protection are critically discussed.
Ethylcellulose (EC) nanoparticles have been widely investigated for their use as drug delivery systems. However, their application on the textile field has been hardly studied. In this work, the use of EC nanoparticles as nanocarriers of active or lipid soluble compounds and their subsequent deposition on cotton textile is proposed in order to obtain functional textiles. A UV protective textile has been obtained after deposition of EC nanoparticles loaded with a liposoluble UV filter on cotton fabrics. The EC/cotton affinity and the attachment mechanism of EC nanoparticles on cotton substrate was studied by means of thermal behaviour evaluation, estimation of adhesion work (WA) and wash resistance tests. It is proposed that during EC nanoparticles deposition on cotton fabric, entanglement of polymeric chains is favoured, thus improving adhesion of EC nanoparticles on cotton substrate. The functionality of cotton textile was assessed by ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) measurements, showing a high UPF value (UPF = 45). Evaluation of UPF as a function of washing cycles were carried out on treated cotton fabrics. Washed fabrics still provided good UV protection (UPF ≥ 25), evidencing the presence of nanoparticles after washing cycles and the durability of the conferred functionality.
A superhydrophobic fibrous membrane (FM), which consists of elastic polyurethane (PU) and chromatic polydiacetylenes (PDA), is fabricated using an electrospinning technique, followed by short-time UV irradiation and heating treatment. The FM with fine hierarchical roughness exhibits excellent superhydrophobicity and breathability under even 300% strain of biaxial stretching. It can effectively separate the oil–sea water mixture, solely using gravity, with fascinating permeate flux (6369.4 ± 37.7 L m h ), high separation efficiency, excellent recyclability and stability against corrosive liquids. Furthermore, the FM shows good air permeability and mechanical properties. Our design starts from simple chemistry, and may offer a versatile and scalable approach to fabricate hierarchically structured superhydrophobic FMs for variously potential applications, including the cleanup of oil spills, waste water treatment, packaging of stretchable electronics and protective clothing.
Photoprotection is an effective method for preventing damaging effects from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Photoprotection is accomplished through the use of sunscreens, protective clothing, and safe sun practices. Sunscreens are composed of various UV filters, including inorganic/physical blockers and organic/chemical sunscreen agents. New technologies are emerging in sunscreen development and may soon be available to U.S. consumers. General guidelines for sunscreen use should be reinforced to improve patient compliance and sunscreen efficacy. Habitual use of sunscreen is recommended with UV exposure, and concerns for vitamin D deficiency with sunscreen use should not supersede proper photoprotective behavior.
Modern approach to biological, chemical, radiation weapons, which can be used during conflicts demands the soldier to be equipped with suitable clothing protecting against contamination, cold, fire and radiation. The uniform is multi-layered clothing, plus a mask, gloves and boots. Generally this is performed mainly by three separate layers: a first blocking hazardous chemicals, pathogens permeation blocking layer and a layer serving as thermal insulators and blockers of excessive radiation. Thus, the new uniforms solutions must also reduce thermal shock to the user and expand the protective properties. It is assumed that the specialized clothing should absolutely kill pathogens, destroy toxic chemicals by catalytic action, protect from extreme low temperatures and protect under fire condition. These uniforms should be at a reduced weight of the improved functionality. These high technologies promise significant progress in multifunctional textiles: for defence, for fire-fighters, chemical industry, aircraft, automotive and factory filters, sterile clothing for medicine.
Commonly used impact resistant polycarbonate (PC) safety glasses were evaluated for suitability of use in a high power, ultra-violet (UV) laser lab in place of laser eyewear. Product bulletins for the glasses tested all specified 99.9% or greater UV absorbance for their PC materials. Safety glasses from various manufacturers were exposed to 1,501 pulses of UV light (248 nm) from a 0.6 J krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser over a 30 s period. Radiant energy incident on the eye wear was reduced to a nominal 200 mJ through attenuating filters. Surface damage to lens coatings was rapid. Calculations for this laser system indicated that the safety glasses tested had a minimum optical density (OD) of 2.6 (2.58–3.40). At this wavelength the safety glasses would protect from an intra-beam (direct) exposure up to pulse energies of 800 μJ at the lowest OD rating. They would not be protective for an intra-beam exposure to the system as employed for these tests (minimum OD of 5 required). The damage threshold for surface coating destruction was 100 mJ/cm . Damage only occurred at radiant energies above which the lenses could provide sufficient UV attenuation. That is to say ocular damage could result before damage to the coating became evident. As damage was allowed to continue the PC material began to blister, char and distort. At this point the damage resulted in small increases in optical densities. In general, PC safety glasses would not be suitable for high energy laser applications (all Class 4 lasers and many 3B lasers) whenever intra-beam viewing was possible. Safety glasses may be suitable for diffuse viewing (indirect) situations when it can be determined that the OD provided is sufficient to attenuate the scattered energy.
► Reactive printing of Cellulose/wool blends. ► Modification of printing formulation using UV-absorbers or blockers. ► High quality prints with a remarkable UV-protective function. A novel approach for attaining reactive cotton/wool and viscose/wool prints with outstanding UV-protection functions was achieved via inclusion of certain UV-absorbers namely 4-hydroxybenzophenone and UV-SUN or UV-blockers like ZnO-NPs and TiO -NPs along with MCT-βCD, as a reactive additive, in the printing paste formulation using Na-alginate as a thickening agent. Experimental results reveal that the inorganic UV-blockers exhibit better UV-protection functions compared with the used UV-absorbers, and the improvement in the imparted UV-protection capacity follows the decreasing order: ZnO-NPs > TiO -NPs > 4-hyroxybenzopherone ≥ UV-SUN ≫ none > untreated. The enhancement in UV-protection functionality is governed by the type of substrate, cotton/wool > viscose/wool, extent of modification and loading of the used nano-metal oxides or organic absorbers onto the fabric surface as well functionality and ability of the used reactive dyes to absorb the hazardous UV-B radiation. The obtained functional prints exhibited outstanding UV-protection efficiency even after 15 washing cycles.
Military soldiers, medicinal doctors, and ordinary people require protection against chemical and biological warfare (C&B) agents. Activated charcoal impregnated with metal ions is currently used in protective clothing applications, which has some disadvantages. Electrospinning is emerging as one of the cheapest technologies to produce continuous nanofibers with a high surface area‐to‐volume ratio. In the present study, electrospinning of a poly(ethylene imine) (PEI)/nylon blend has been carried out in which PEI acts as a support material as well as a catalytic media. The membrane is combined with non‐selective metal oxide nanoparticles to degrade C&B agents into non‐toxic products. In addition, these membranes possess hydrophilic properties, hence they are suitable candidates for protective clothing applications. Presently activated carbon is used as an adsorptive material for chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents, but it does have disadvantages, such as its heavy weight. In this paper, novel electrospun polymeric nanostructures (i.e., nylon/PEI nanofibers) that have reactive functional groups (secondary amine groups of PEI) able to act both as a supportive and catalytic material is investigated as a possible anti‐CB warfare agent material. The amine functional group present on the surfaces of the nylon/PEI nanofibers enables a greater amount of nanoparticle coating, whereas only a few nanoparticles were observed coating the nylon nanofiber's surface.