Mitochondrial DNA ND5/6 region was studied by PCR-RFLP analysis among ten representative strains belonging to three subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus and Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). A total of 2.4 kb fragment was amplified and subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis with nine restriction endonucleases subsequently. The results indicated that each subspecies owned one hyplotype and four restriction enzymes (Dde I, HaeIII, Taq I and Mbo I) produced diagnostic restriction sites which could be used for discriminating the three subspecies and as molecular genetic markers for assistant selective breeding of common carp.
Through the comparative analysis of primary freshwater fishes in Chinese continent and the Taiwan Island, we summarize the three distinctions of distribution of freshwater fishes in these areas: (i) there exists a high similarity of freshwater fish fauna between Taiwan and the southeastern shore of the continent; (ii) some species of freshwater fish are found both in the Taiwan Island and East Himalayans; (iii) different freshwater fishes have different distributions in island arch of western Pacific where Taiwan is located, but the distribution pattern shows a similarity to that of adjacent continent. The characteristic distributions of the fishes are closely related to the change in paleogeography and geology in the area. The parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE analysis) indicates that the three distribution patterns can be explained by the vicariance theory.
The expression vector containing phbB and ble genes was constructed and transformed into cell-wall-deficient strain Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-849 by the glass-head method. The transgenic alga was selected and maintained in the TAP agar plates containing 10 mug/mL Zeomycin. Transgenic alga, which could express phbB at the transcriptional level, was obtained and further confirmed with PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR-DNA hybridization analysis.
The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene is sequenced from 24 ingroups taxa, including 18 species from Labeoninae grouped in 13 genera. Phylogenetic analyses are subjected to neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Labeoninae is basically a monophyletic assemblage and can be divided into 2 major clades: one comprising the genera Cirrhinus, Crossocheilus and Garra; and the other consisting of the genera Labeo, Sinilabeo, Osteochilus, Pseudoorossocheilus, Parasinilabeo. Ptychidio, Semilabeo, Pseudogyricheilus, Rectori and Discogobio. According to our present analysis, the features such as the presence of the adhesive disc on the chin and the pharyngeal teeth in 2 rows used in the traditional taxonomy of Labeoninae provide scarce information for phylogeny of labeonine fishes.
The rapid development of molecular phylogenetic analysis has provided a new path to investigate the tempo of evolution. In this work, a rather complete molecular phylogeny of the East Asian gobionid fishes was constructed based on mtDNA cytochrome b gene sequences. Molecular clock analysis was then applied to investigate the speciation tempo of this group. The phylogenetic analysis revealed four major groups that were in agreement with previous studies. Lineage numbers plotted over time indicate that gobionid lineages increased in an exponential mode with the equation expressed as y = 87.562xe(-0.1141x), where y is the number of lineages and x represents the geological time, and 0 < x <= 30, 1 <= y <= 65. The speciation rate of gobionid fishes calculated by LASER program was inconstant. Peaks of speciation were identified and found approximately to be coincident with East Asian geological events, such as uplifts of the Tibetan plateau and formation of the monsoon system.
A PCR survey for Sox genes in a young tetraploid fish Tor douronensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) was performed to access the evolutionary fates of important functional genes after genome duplication caused by polyploidization event. Totally 13 Sox genes were obtained in Tor douronensis, which represent SoxB, SoxC and SoxE groups. Phylogenetic analysis of Sox genes in Tor douronensis provided evidence for fish-specific genome duplication, and suggested that Sox19 might be a teleost specific Sox gene member. Sequence analysis revealed most of the nucleotide substitutions between duplicated copies of Sox genes caused by tetraploidization event or their orthologues in other species are silent substitutions. It would appear that the sequences are under purifying selective pressure, strongly suggesting that they represent functional genes and supporting selection against all null allele at either of two duplicated loci of Sox4a, Sox9a and Sox9b. Surprising variations of the intron length and similarities of two duplicated copies of Sox9a and Sox9b, suggest that Tor douronensis might be an allotetraploidy.
SINE (short interspersed element) insertion analysis elucidates contentious aspects in the phylogeny of toothed whales and dolphins (Odontoceti), especially river dolphins. Here, we characterize 25 informative SINEs inserted into unique genomic loci during evolution of odontocetes to construct a cladogram. and determine a total of 2.8 kb per taxon of the flanking sequences of these SINE loci to estimate divergence times among lineages. We demonstrate that: (i) Odontocetes are monophyletic; (ii) Ganges River dolphins, beaked whales, and ocean dolphins diverged (in this order) after sperm whales; (iii) three other river dolphin taxa, namely the Amazon, La Plata, and Yangtze river dolphins, form a monophyletic group with Yangtze River dolphins being the most basal; and (iv) the rapid radiation of extant cetacean lineages occurred some 28-33 million years B.P., in strong accord with the fossil record. The combination of SINE and flanking sequence analysis suggests a topology and set of divergence times for odontocete relationships, offering alternative explanations for several long-standing problems in cetacean evolution.
Common carp Cyprinus carpio genomic DNA repetitive sequence CR1 has been DIG-labeled and hybridized in situ against chromosomes of red common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Xingguo red var.). It is found that the repetitive sequence CR1 is mainly localized at the centromeric regions of chromosomes of the red common carp, The application of the chromosomal in situ hybridization technique on fish and the relationship between CR1 repetitive sequence distribution and its function have been discussed.
Recombinant "all-fish" growth hormone gene (GH) was microinjected Into the fertilized eggs of carp. A comparison between the growth traits of transgenics and non-transgenics was carried out, and the transgenic individuals with significant "fast-growing" effect were successfully gained. A comparison on the reproductivities was also given out between the transgenics and their non-transgenic siblings, and showed that the reproductive capacity of transgenics was substantially equivalent to those of the non-transgenics. On the other hand, the genetic separation and the characteristic distribution of the F-1 generation were genetically analyzed, which gave solid evidence for the hypothesis that 2-3 chromosomes are integrated with transgene. In addition, the distinct biological effects for multisite-integrated transgenes were further discussed. The present study opens a door for the breeding of "fast-growing" transgenic fish.
Reproductive behaviors are poorly known for the Yangtze finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis. In this study, the parentage of an isolated Yangtze finless porpoise population inhabiting the Yangtze Tian-e-Zhou Baiji National Natural Reserve is determined by analysis of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and the porpoise's reproductive behaviors are studied. Overall 4 full parentage assignments and additional 3 single parentage assignments were determined for the population of 23 individuals. The analysis shows that their estimated reproductive cycle is shorter than that reported previously and there probably exists an overlapping between gestation and lactation period. The Study also shows that the female does not show fidelity to a particular male for breeding and vice versa, the oldest males did not monopolize mating and the dominance rank could not be so strict for the porpoise society. Moreover, the porpoise's mating pattern and relatedness among candidate parents are discussed here. These results provide important information for making guidelines of management and conservation for this protected population.