Phaeodactylum tricornutum is a potential livestock for the combined production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and fucoxanthin. In this study, six marine diatom strains identified as P. tricornutum were cultured and their total lipid, fatty acid composition and major photosynthetic pigments determined. It was found that the cell dry weight concentration and mean growth rate ranged between 0.24-0.36 g/L and 0.31-0.33/d, respectively. Among the strains, SCSIO771 presented the highest total lipid content, followed by SCSIO828, and the prominent fatty acids in all strains were C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:5 (EPA). Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including C16:2, C18:2, and EPA, comprised a significant proportion of the total fatty acids. EPA was markedly high in all strains, with the highest in SCSIO828 at 25.65% of total fatty acids. Fucoxanthin was the most abundant pigment in all strains, with the highest in SCSIO828 as well, at 5.50 mg/g. The collective results suggested that strain SCSIO828 could be considered a good candidate for the concurrent production of EPA and fucoxanthin.
Acute environmental disturbances impact on habitat quality and resource availability, which can reverberate through trophic levels and become apparent in species' dietary composition. In this study, we observed a distinct dietary shift of newly settled and juvenile coral trout (Plectropomus maculatus) following severe coral reef habitat degradation after a river flood plume affected the Keppel Islands, Australia. Hard coral cover declined by similar to 28 % in the 2 yr following the 2010-2011 floods, as did the abundance of young coral trout. Gut contents analysis revealed that diets had shifted from largely crustacean-based to non-preferred prey fishes following the disturbances. These results suggest that newly settled and juvenile coral trout modify their diet and foraging strategy in response to coral habitat degradation. This bottom-up effect of habitat degradation on the diet of a top coral reef predator may incur a metabolic cost, with subsequent effects on growth and survival.
Brown trout Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, is a priority species for conservation and management efforts in many European countries. In its native range, interactions with non-native fishes often adversely affect somatic growth rates and population abundances. Consequences of introduced North American pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) for native S. trutta were examined in stream stretches with and without L. gibbosus. Data for somatic growth rates and trophic niche breadth (using stable isotope analyses) provided little evidence of L. gibbosus presence being detrimental for S. trutta. Shifts in S. trutta diet at all sites were associated with increased piscivory with increasing body length, with no evidence to suggest that interspecific resource competition with L. gibbosus structured the food web or affected trophic positions. Three years later, and following L. gibbosus removal, data revealed slight shifts in the food web at each site, but these related to shifts in resources at the bottom of the food chain rather than a response to L. gibbosus removal. Consequently, the ecological consequences of L. gibbosus for S. trutta in the study stream were minimal, with S. trutta populations responding more to natural mechanisms regulating their populations than to the presence of this non-native fish species.
The dinoflagellate Symbiodinium trenchii associates with a wide array of host corals throughout the world, and its thermal tolerance has made it of particular interest within the context of reef coral resilience to a warming climate. However, future reefs are increasingly likely to face combined environmental stressors, further complicating our understanding of how S. trenchii will possibly acclimatize to future climate scenarios. Over a 33-day period, we characterized the individual and combined affects of high temperature (26.5 vs. 31.5 degrees C), pCO(2) (400 vs. 760 mu atm), and elevated nutrients (0.4 and 0.2 vs. 3.5 and 0.3 mu mol of NO3/NO2 and PO43-, respectively) on S. trenchii within the host coral species Turbinaria reniformis. Global analysis across all treatments found temperature to be the largest driver of physiological change. However, exposure to elevated temperature led to changes in symbiont physiology that differed across pCO(2) concentrations. Net photosynthesis and cellular chlorophyll a increased with temperature under ambient pCO(2), whereas temperature-related differences in cellular volume and its affect on pigment packaging were more pronounced under elevated pCO(2). Furthermore, increased nutrients mitigated the physiological response to high temperature under both ambient and elevated pCO(2) conditions and represented a significant interaction between all three physical parameters. Individual responses to temperature and pCO(2) were also observed as cellular density declined with elevated temperature and calcification along with respiration rates declined with increased pCO(2). Symbiodinium trenchii remained the dominant symbiont population within the host across all treatment combinations. Our results reveal distinct physiological changes in response to high temperature within the S. trenchii/T. reniformis symbioses that are dependent on pCO(2) and nutrient concentration, and represent important interactive effects to consider as we consider how corals will respond under future climate change scenarios.
The distribution of rare metal elements (Zr, Sn, Ti, Y, Nb, Ta, Ce, La, Nd and Th) in surface sediments from four bays along the northwestern coast of the South China Sea allowed infer their main controlling factors and their mineralization potential as metals placer. The results revealed that their contents in surface sediments are very variable but show a clear geographic regularity. The average content of all elements in those areas decreases from the East to the West, with the minimum value of all elements in Leizhou Bay, the maximum value of Zr, Y, La, Ce, Nd and Th in Zhanjiang Bay, and the maximum values of Sn, Ti, Nb and Ta in Hailing Bay. The relative enrichment of these elements in two easternmost bays (Hailing Bay and Shuidong Bay) are attributed to the southwest alongshore current, which drain and transport terrigenous sediments from the granite region of the South China into these two bays. The correlation results between all element contents and fine sediment fraction (<63 mu m) suggested that the main factors controlling the distribution of Ti, Nb and Sn should be the fine fraction of the sediment, but alternatively Zr, Y, La, Ce, Nd and Th are rich in heavy minerals and/or bioclasts, and Ta maybe affected by both. Detail analysis shows that sediments from Hailing Bay may contain abundant zircon, cassiterite, ilmenite (or rutile), xenotime, monazite, niobium tantalite and other rare metal minerals, with a good prospect as a rare metal placer resource, and the zircon, xenotime and monazite may also have good metallogenic prospects in Shuidong Bay and in the local area of Zhangjian Bay. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this study, the effect of environmental metal exposure on the accumulation and subcellular distribution of metals in the digestive gland of clams with special emphasis on metallothioneins (MTs) was investigated. Specimens of indigenous Moerella iridescens were collected from different natural habitats in Maluan Bay (China), characterized by varying levels of metal contamination. The digestive glands were excised, homogenized and six subcellular fractions were separated by differential centrifugation procedures and analyzed for their Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb contents. MTs were quantified independently by spectrophotometric measurements of thiols. Site-specific differences were observed in total metal concentrations in the tissues, correlating well with variable environmental metal concentrations and reflecting the gradient trends in metal contamination. Concentrations of the non-essential Cd and Pb were more responsive to environmental exposure gradients than were tissue concentrations of the essential metals, Cu and Zn. Subcellular partitioning profiles for Cu, Zn and Cd were relatively similar, with the heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction as the dominant metal-binding compartment, whereas for Pb this fraction was much less important. The variations in proportions and concentrations of metals in this fraction along with the metal bioaccumulation gradients suggested that the induced MTs play an important role in metal homeostasis and detoxification for M. iridescens in the metal-contaminated bay. Nevertheless, progressive accumulation of non-essential metals (Cd, and especially Pb) resulting from "spillover" was observed in putative metal- sensitive (e.g., mitochondria and heat-denaturable protein (HDP)) or lysosome/microsome fractions, demonstrating that metal detoxification was incomplete and increased the toxicological risk to M. iridescens inhabiting the metal-impacted environments. Through multiple step-wise regression analysis, the induction of MTs was statistically correlated with the HSP concentrations of Cu, and to a lesser extent with Zn, and ultimately to the Cd concentrations, exhibiting significant dose-dependent relationships. Overall, these findings not only revealed the fates of accumulated metals, but scientifically favored an improved understanding of the detoxification at the subcellular level in response to metal accumulation, supporting the focus of metabolic availability assessment on the intracellular processes or events occurring within organisms. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.