The number of individuals who have started a regimen for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the United States is not well characterized but has been on the rise since 2012. This analysis assesses the distribution of PrEP use nationally and among subgroups. A validated algorithm quantifying tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine for PrEP in the United States was applied to a national prescription database to determine the quarterly prevalence of PrEP use. HIV diagnoses from 2016 were used as an epidemiological proxy for PrEP need. The PrEP-to-need ratio (PnR) was defined as the number of PrEP users divided by new HIV diagnoses. A total of 70,395 individuals used PrEP in the fourth quarter of 2017: 67,166 males and 3229 females. Nationally, prevalence of PrEP use was 26/100,000 (range across states per 100,000 [RAS/100k]: 4–73) and the PnR was 1.8 (RAS: 0.5–6.6). Prevalence of PrEP use among males and females, respectively, was 50/100,000 and 2/100,000 (RAS/100k: 7–143 and 0.3–7) and PnR was 2.1 and 0.4 (RAS: 0.6–7.1 and 0.1–4.0). Prevalence of PrEP use was lowest among individuals aged less than or equal to 24 and more than or equal to 55 years (15/100,000 and 6/100,000, RAS/100k: 1–45 and 0.4–14), with PnR 0.9 and 1.5 (RAS: 0.2–5.6 and 0.3–7.0). The Northeast had the highest PnR (3.3); the South had the lowest (1.0). States with Medicaid expansion had more than double the PnR than states without expansion. Available data suggest that females, individuals aged less than or equal to 24 years and residents of the South had lower levels of PrEP use relative to epidemic need. These results are ecological, and misclassification may attenuate results. PnR is useful for future assessments of HIV prevention strategy uptake.
Summary Substantial changes are needed to achieve a more targeted and strategic approach to investment in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic that will yield long-term dividends. Until now, advocacy for resources has been done on the basis of a commodity approach that encouraged scaling up of numerous strategies in parallel, irrespective of their relative effects. We propose a strategic investment framework that is intended to support better management of national and international HIV/AIDS responses than exists with the present system. Our framework incorporates major efficiency gains through community mobilisation, synergies between programme elements, and benefits of the extension of antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission. It proposes three categories of investment, consisting of six basic programmatic activities, interventions that create an enabling environment to achieve maximum effectiveness, and programmatic efforts in other health and development sectors related to HIV/AIDS. The yearly cost of achievement of universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2015 is estimated at no less than US$22 billion. Implementation of the new investment framework would avert 12·2 million new HIV infections and 7·4 million deaths from AIDS between 2011 and 2020 compared with continuation of present approaches, and result in 29·4 million life-years gained. The framework is cost effective at $1060 per life-year gained, and the additional investment proposed would be largely offset from savings in treatment costs alone.
Summary Substantial inequalities exist in cancer survival rates across countries. In addition to prevention of new cancers by reduction of risk factors, strategies are needed to close the gap between developed and developing countries in cancer survival and the effects of the disease on human suffering. We challenge the public health community's assumption that cancers will remain untreated in poor countries, and note the analogy to similarly unfounded arguments from more than a decade ago against provision of HIV treatment. In resource-constrained countries without specialised services, experience has shown that much can be done to prevent and treat cancer by deployment of primary and secondary caregivers, use of off-patent drugs, and application of regional and global mechanisms for financing and procurement. Furthermore, several middle-income countries have included cancer treatment in national health insurance coverage with a focus on people living in poverty. These strategies can reduce costs, increase access to health services, and strengthen health systems to meet the challenge of cancer and other diseases. In 2009, we formed the Global Task Force on Expanded Access to Cancer Care and Control in Developing Countries, which is composed of leaders from the global health and cancer care communities, and is dedicated to proposal, implementation, and evaluation of strategies to advance this agenda.
The term "network interventions" describes the process of using social network data to accelerate behavior change or improve organizational performance. In this Review, four strategies for network interventions are described, each of which has multiple tactical alternatives. Many of these tactics can incorporate different mathematical algorithms. Consequently, researchers have many intervention choices at their disposal. Selecting the appropriate network intervention depends on the availability and character of network data, perceived characteristics of the behavior, its existing prevalence, and the social context of the program.
Growing consensus indicates that progress in tuberculosis control in the low- and middle-income world will require not only investment in strengthening tuberculosis control programs, diagnostics, and treatment but also action on the social determinants of tuberculosis. However, practical ideas for action are scarcer than is notional support for this idea. We developed a framework based on the recent World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health and on current understanding of the social determinants of tuberculosis. Interventions from outside the health sector-specifically, in social protection and urban planning-have the potential to strengthen tuberculosis control. (Am J Public Health. 2011;101:654-662. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2010.199505)
The HIV–AIDS pandemic is now in its fourth decade. This article describes how HIV–AIDS has been transformed from a death sentence into a manageable illness and outlines the need for continued and coordinated international efforts. Just over three decades ago, a new outbreak of opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma was reported in a small number of homosexual men in California and New York. 1 , 2 This universally fatal disease, which was eventually called the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), was associated with a complete loss of CD4+ T cells. Within the first year of its description, the disease was also identified in patients with hemophilia, users of injection drugs, blood-transfusion recipients, and infants born to affected mothers. Soon thereafter, a heterosexual epidemic of AIDS was reported in Central Africa, preferentially affecting women. 3 , 4 Little did we know . . .
Background. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) or TDF alone reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Understanding the risk of antiretroviral resistance selected by PrEP during breakthrough infections is important because of the risk of treatment failure during subsequent antiretroviral use. Methods. Within the largest randomized trial of FTC/TDF versus TDF as PrEP, plasma samples were tested for HIV with resistance mutations associated with FTC (K65R and M184IV) and TDF (K65R and K70E), using 454 sequencing. Results. Of 121 HIV seroconverters, 25 received FTC/TDF, 38 received TDF, and 58 received placebo. Plasma drug levels in 26 individuals indicated PrEP use during or after HIV acquisition, of which 5 had virus with resistance mutations associated with their PrEP regimen. Among those with PrEP drug detected during infection, resistance was more frequent in the FTC/TDF arm (4 of 7 [57%]), compared with the TDF arm (1 of 19 [5.3%]; P = .01), owing to the FTC-associated mutation M184IV. Of these cases, 3 had unrecognized acute infection at PrEP randomization, and 2 were HIV negative at enrollment. Conclusions. These results suggest that resistance selected by PrEP is rare but can occur both with PrEP initiation during acute seronegative HIV infection and in PrEP breakthrough infections and that FTC is associated with a greater frequency of resistance mutations than TDF.
Background. Adherence is necessary for efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and text-messaging methods are promising tools for both adherence assessment and support. Although PrEP adherence is variable, little research has examined patterns of variability or factors associated with longitudinal use. Methods. In the context of a randomized controlled trial of text-messaging versus standard of care for PrEP adherence, 181 men who have sex with men received once-daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and daily adherence texts for 48 weeks. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to identify subgroups of individuals with similar trajectories of text-reported adherence. Between-group differences in pharmacologic measures of adherence (ie, tenofovir diphosphate and emtricitabine triphosphate levels), as well as predictors and study-end attitudes associated with group membership, were examined. Results. GMM identified 4 trajectories of text-reported adherence. Classes with higher text-reported adherence had higher drug concentrations. Younger age and minority race were associated with lower adherence, and individuals in classes with lower adherence had greater baseline levels of depression, substance use concerns, and sexual risk. Differences in study satisfaction were also associated with adherence. Conclusions. This study supports the use of text-reported PrEP adherence. Identifying factors associated with less-than-optimal adherence may aid clinicians in anticipating at-risk patients requiring augmented intervention.