Complement 5a （C5a） has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis by inducing the functional impairment of neutrophils; however, the utility of C5a receptors （C5aRs; C5aR and C5L2） as biomarkers for the management of sepsis is uncertain. This study investigated the dynamic expression of C5aR and C5L2 on neutrophits and their effects on neutrophil function. We found that sepsis patients displayed low expression levels of C5aR and C5L2 on neutrophils compared to healthy and systemic inflammatory response syndrome （SIRS） subjects, and this expression pattern was correlated with disease severity. Additionally, the expression levels of C5aR and C5L2 were associated with the survival of sepsis patients. In vitro, the addition of C5a significantly reduced C5aR and C5L2 expression levels and IL-8 production in neutrophils from sepsis patients. Those findings suggest that the reduced expression of C5aRs was associated with the functional impairment of neutrophils and a poor prognosis for sepsis patients. Overall, these findings may help establish C5aRs expression levels as early markers to predict the severity of sepsis.
Background： Despite its high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality, sepsis-associated encephalopathy （SAE） is still poorly understood. The aim of this prospective and observational study was to investigate the clinical significance of calcium-binding protein A8 （S 100AS） in serum and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 （TRAF6） in peripheral blood mononuclear cells （PBMCs） in diagnosing SAE and predicting its prognosis. Methods： Data of septic patients were collected within 24 h after Intensive Care Unit admission fi-om July 2014 to March 2015. Healthy medical personnel served as the control group. SAE was defined as cerebral dysfhnction in the presence of sepsis that fulfilled the exclusion criteria. The biochemical indicators, Glasgow Coma Scale, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation score II, TRAF6 in PBMC, serum S 100A8, S 10013, and neuron-specific enolase were evaluated in SAE patients afresh. TRAF6 and S 100A8 were also measured in the control group. Results： Of the 57 enrolled patients, 29 were diagnosed with SAE. The S 100A8 and TRAF6 concentrations in SAE patients were both significantly higher than that in no-encephalopathy （NE） patients, and higher in NE than that in controls （3.74 ± 3.13 vs. 1.08 ± 0.75 vs. 0.37 ± 0.14 ng/ml, P 〈 0.01 ; 3.18 ± 1.55 vs. 1.02 ± 0.63 vs. 0.47 ± 0.10, P 〈 0.01）. S 100A8 levels of 1.93 ng/ml were diagnostic of SAE with 92.90% specificity and 69.00% sensitivity in the receiver operating characteristic （ROC） curve, and the area under the curve was 0.86 （95% confidence interval [CI]： 0.76-0.95）. TRAF6-relative levels of 1.44 were diagnostic of SAE with 85.70% specificity and 86.20% sensitivity, and the area under the curve was 0.94 （95% CI： 0.88-0.99）. In addition, S 100A8 levels of 2.41 ng/ml predicted 28-day mortality of SAE with 90.00% specificity and 73.70% sensitivity in the ROC curve, and the area under the curve was 0.88. TRAF6 relative levels of 2.94 predicted 28-day mortality of SAE with 80.00% specificity and 68.40% sensitivity, and the area under the curve was 0.77. Compared with TRAF6, the specificity of serum S 100A8 in diagnosing SAE and predicting mortality was higher, although the sensitivity was low. In contrast, the TRAF6 had higher sensitivity for diagnosis. Conclusions： Peripheral blood levels of S 100A8 and TRAF6 in SAE patients were elevated and might be related to the severity of SAE and predict the outcome of SAE. The efficacy and specificity of S 100A8 for SAE diagnosis were superior, despite its weak sensitivity. S100A8 might be a better biomarker for diagnosis of SAE and predicting prognosis.