The fp25k gene of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) was studied. HearNPV fp25k gene transcription was found starting from about 18 h post-infection, and protein could be detected from the same time with antiserum against FP25K. To study the function of HearNPV fp25k, a recombinant HearNPV (HaBacWD11) with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene replacing the fp25k was constructed using HaBacHZ8, a bacmid of HearNPV that lacks the polyhedrin gene. Growth curve analysis showed that HaBacWD11 produced higher titres of budded viruses (BVs) than its wild-type counterpart HaBacHZ8-GFP. Electron microscopic analysis indicated that at the late stage of infection, the number of intranuclear enveloped nucleocapsids in HaBacWD11-infected cells was much less than that of HaBacHZ8-GFP. A rescue recombinant virus HaBacWD14 was constructed by reintroducing fp25k gene into HaBacWD11. The growth curve and electron microscopic analysis of the rescued recombinant confirmed that the increase of BV yield and the decrease of the virion production in infected cells were the result of fp25k deletion. The expression of membrane fusion protein (Ha133) and ODV-E66 were studied using the FP25K mutants HaBacWD11 and HaBacHZ8-GFP. Unlike FP25K mutants in Autographa californica multicapsid NPV (AcMNPV), which caused an increase in the expression of membrane fusion protein GP64 and a decrease of ODV-E66, no obvious changes at the expression level of Ha133 and ODV-E66 were observed in HearNPV FP25K mutant.
Background: A virus was isolated from diseased turbot Scophthalmus maximus in China. Biophysical and biochemical assays, electron microscopy, and genome electrophoresis revealed that the virus belonged to the genus Aquareovirus, and was named Scophthalmus maximus reovirus (SMReV). To the best of our knowledge, no complete sequence of an aquareovirus from marine fish has been determined. Therefore, the complete characterization and analysis of the genome of this novel aquareovirus will facilitate further understanding of the taxonomic distribution of aquareovirus species and the molecular mechanism of its pathogenesis. Results: The full-length genome sequences of SMReV were determined. It comprises eleven dsRNA segments covering 24,042 base pairs and has the largest S4 genome segment in the sequenced aquareoviruses. Sequence analysis showed that all of the segments contained six conserved nucleotides at the 5' end and five conserved nucleotides at the 3' end (5'-GUUUUA - UCAUC-3'). The encoded amino acid sequences share the highest sequence identities with the respective proteins of aquareoviruses in species group Aquareovirus A. Phylogenetic analysis based on the major outer capsid protein VP7 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were performed. Members in Aquareovirus were clustered in two groups, one from fresh water fish and the other from marine fish. Furthermore, a fusion associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein NS22, which is translated from a non-AUG start site, was identified in the S7 segment. Conclusions: This study has provided the complete genome sequence of a novel isolated aquareovirus from marine fish. Amino acids comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggested that SMReV was a new aquareovirus in the species group Aquareovirus A. Phylogenetic analysis among aquareoviruses revealed that VP7 could be used as a reference to divide the aquareovirus from hosts in fresh water or marine. In addition, a FAST protein with a non-AUG start site was identified, which partially contributed to the cytopathic effect caused by the virus infection. These results provide new insights into the virus-host and virus-environment interactions.
Rab proteins belong to the largest family of the Ras superfamily of small GTPase that play an important role in intracellular vesicular traffic. So far, almost 60 members of Rab family have been identified in mammalian cells. To further study the diversity and function of Rab protein in evolution, unicellular protozoa ciliates, Euplotes octocarinatus, were used in this study, Rab genes were screened by PCR method from macronuclear DNA of E. octocarinatus. Sixteen Rab genes were obtained. They share 87.6 - 99.5% identities. Highly conserved GTP-binding domains were found. There are some hot regions that diverse sharply in these genes as well.
With current gene-transfer techniques in fish, insertion of DNA into the genome occurs randomly and in many instances at multiple sites. Associated position effects, copy number differences, and multiple gene interactions make gene expression experiments difficult to interpret and fish phenotype less predictable. To meet different fish engineering needs, we describe here a gene targeting model in zebrafish. At first, four target zebrafish lines, each harboring a single genomic lox71 target site, were generated by zebrafish transgenesis. The zygotes of transgenic zebrafish lines were coinjected with capped Cre mRNA and a knockin vector pZklox66RFP. Site-specific integration event happened from one target zebrafish line. In this line two integrant zebrafish were obtained from more than 80,000 targeted embryos (integrating efficiency about 10(-4) to 10(-5)) and confirmed to have a sole copy of the integrating DNA at the target genome site. Genomic polymerase chain reaction analysis and DNA sequencing verified the correct gene target events where lox71 and lox66 have accurately recombined into double mutant lox72 and wild-type loxP. Each integrant zebrafish chosen for analysis harbored the transgene rfp at the designated egfp concatenates. Although the Cre-mediated recombination is site specific, it is dependent on a randomly placed target site. That is, a genomic target cannot be preselected for integration based solely on its sequence. Conclusively, an rfp reporter gene was successfully inserted into the egfp target locus of zebrafish genome by Cre-lox-mediated recombination. This site-directed knockin system using the lox71/lox66 combination should be a promising gene-targeting platform serving various purposes in fish genetic engineering.
Background: Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play key roles in the metabolism of a wide variety of substrates and they are closely associated with endocellular physiological processes or detoxification metabolism under environmental exposure. To date, however, none has been systematically characterized in the phylum Ciliophora. T. thermophila possess many advantages as a eukaryotic model organism and it exhibits rapid and sensitive responses to xenobiotics, making it an ideal model system to study the evolutionary and functional diversity of the P450 monooxygenase gene family. Results: A total of 44 putative functional cytochrome P450 genes were identified and could be classified into 13 families and 21 sub-families according to standard nomenclature. The characteristics of both the conserved intron-exon organization and scaffold localization of tandem repeats within each P450 family clade suggested that the enlargement of T. thermophila P450 families probably resulted from recent separate small duplication events. Gene expression patterns of all T. thermophila P450s during three important cell physiological stages (vegetative growth, starvation and conjugation) were analyzed based on EST and microarray data, and three main categories of expression patterns were postulated. Evolutionary analysis including codon usage preference, sit-especific selection and gene-expression evolution patterns were investigated and the results indicated remarkable divergences among the T. thermophila P450 genes. Conclusion: The characterization, expression and evolutionary analysis of T. thermophila P450 monooxygenase genes in the current study provides useful information for understanding the characteristics and diversities of the P450 genes in the Ciliophora, and provides the baseline for functional analyses of individual P450 isoforms in this model ciliate species.
Full-length and partial genome sequences of four members of the genus Aquareovirus, family Reoviridae (Golden shiner reovirus, Grass carp reovirus, Striped bass reovirus and golden ide reovirus) were characterized. Based on sequence comparison, the unclassified Grass carp reovirus was shown to be a member of the species Aquareovirus C The status of golden ide reovirus, another unclassified aquareovirus, was also examined. Sequence analysis showed that it did not belong to the species Aquareovirus A or C, but assessment of its relationship to the species Aquareovirus B, D, E and F was hampered by the absence of genetic data from these species. In agreement with previous reports of ultrastructural resemblance between aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses, genetic analysis revealed homology in the genes of the two groups. This homology concerned eight of the 11 segments of the aquareovirus genome (amino acid identity 17-42%), and similar genetic organization was observed in two other segments. The conserved terminal sequences in the genomes of members of the two groups were also similar. These data are undoubtedly an indication of the common evolutionary origin of these viruses. This clear genetic relatedness between members of distinct genera is unique within the family Reoviridae. Such a genetic relationship is usually observed between members of a single genus. However, the current taxonomic classification of aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses in two different genera is supported by a number of characteristics, including their distinct G+C contents, unequal numbers of genome segments, absence of an antigenic relationship, different cytopathic effects and specific econiches.
Background: Variation of gene number among species indicates that there is a general process of new gene origination. One of the major mechanism providing raw materials for the origin of new genes is gene duplication. Retroposition, as a special type of gene duplication-the RNA-based duplication, has been found to play an important role in new gene evolution in mammals and plants, but little is known about the process in the teleostei genome. Results: Here we screened the zebrafish genome for identification of retrocopies and new chimerical retrogenes and investigated their origination and evolution. We identified 652 retrocopies, of which 440 are intact retrogenes and 212 are pseudogenes. Retrocopies have long been considered evolutionary dead ends without functional significance due to the presumption that retrocopies lack the regulatory element needed for expression. However, 437 transcribed retrocopies were identified from all of the retrocopies. This discovery combined with the substitution analysis suggested that the majority of all retrocopies are subject to negative selection, indicating that most of the retrocopies may be functional retrogenes. Moreover, we found that 95 chimerical retrogenes had recruited new sequences from neighboring genomic regions that formed de novo splice sites, thus generating new intron-containing chimeric genes. Based on our analysis of 38 pairs of orthologs between Cyprinus carpio and Danio rerio, we found that the synonymous substitution rate of zebrafish genes is 4.13x10(-9) substitution per silent site per year. We also found 10 chimerical retrogenes that were created in the last 10 million years, which is 7.14 times the rate of 0.14 chimerical retrogenes per million years in the primate lineage toward human and 6.25 times the rate of 0.16 chimerical genes per million years in Drosophila. This is among the most rapid rates of generation of chimerical genes, just next to the rice. Conclusion: There is compelling evidence that much of the extensive transcriptional activity of retrogenes does not represent transcriptional "noise" but indicates the functionality of these retrogenes. Our results indicate that retroposition created a large amount of new genes in the zebrafish genome, which has contributed significantly to the evolution of the fish genome.
A marine fish cell line from the snout of red spotted grouper Epinephelus akaara, a protogynous hermaphrodite, was established, characterized, and subcultured with more than 60 passages. The grouper snout cell line (GSC) cells multiplied well in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The optimal growth temperature was 25 degrees C, and morphologically the cells were fibroblastic. Chromosome analysis revealed that the GSC cell line has a normal diploid karyotype with 2n = 8st + 40t. A virus titration study indicated that the cells were susceptible to turbot Scophthalmus Maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV) (10(8.5) TCID50 ml(-1)), while the viral titer of frog Rana grylio virus 9807 (RGV(9807)) reached 10(3.5) TCID50 ml-1. The infection was confirmed by cytopathic effect (CPE), immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy experiments, which detected the viral particles in the cytoplasm of virus-infected cells, respectively. Further, significant fluorescent signals were observed when the GSC cells were transfected with pEGFP vector DNA, indicating their potential utility for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies.
In study of gene expression profile in cloned embryos which derived from D. rerio embryonic nuclei and G. rarus enucleated eggs, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) of G. rarus, exhibiting difference at expression level between cloned embryos and zebrafish embryo, was cloned. Its full cDNA length is 1654 bp and contains a 1551 bp open reading frame, encoding a 5.64 kDa protein of 516 amino acids. The alignment result shows that mitochondrion tRNA(ser) is co-transcripted with COXI, which just was the 3'-UTR of COXI. Molecular phylogenic analysis based on COXI indicates G. rarus should belong to Gobioninae, which was not in agreement with previous study according to morphological taxonomy. Comparison of DNA with cDNA shows that RNA editing phenomenon does not occur in the COXI of G. rarus.
Lunatic fringe (Lfng), one modulator of Notch signaling, plays an essential part in demarcation of tissues boundaries during animal early development, especially somitogenesis. To characterize the promoter of zebrafish 1fng and generate somite-specific transgenic zebrafish, we isolated the upstream regulatory region of zebrafish 1fng by blast search at the Ensembl genome database (http://www. ensembl.org) and analyzed the promoter activity using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. Promoter activity assay in zebrafish shows that the 0.2-kb fragment containing GC-box, CAAT-box, and TATA-box can direct tissue-specific GFP expression, while the 0.4-kb and 1.2-kb fragments with further upstream sequence included drive GFP expression more efficiently. We produced 1fngEGFP-transgenic founders showing somite-specific expression of GFP and consequently generated a hemizygous 1fngEGFP-transgenic line. The eggs from 1fngEGFP-transgenic female zebrafish show strong GFP expression, which is consistent to the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction PCR (RT-PCR) detection of 1fng transcripts in the fertilized eggs. This reveals that zebrafish 1fng is a maternal factor existing in matured eggs, suggesting that fish somitogcnesis may be influenced by maternal factors.