The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey's 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.
We present a detailed comparison between far-ultraviolet (UV)/optical colour-magnitude diagrams obtained with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope data and suitable theoretical models for three Galactic globular clusters: M3, M13 and M79. These systems represents a 'classical' example of clusters in the intermediate-metallicity regime that, even sharing similar metal content and age, show remarkably different horizontal branch morphologies. As a consequence, the observed differences in the colour distributions of horizontal branch stars cannot be interpreted in terms of either first (metallicity) or a second parameter such as age. We investigate here the possible role of variations of initial helium abundance (Y). Thanks to the use of a proper setup of far-UV filters, we are able to put strong constraints on the maximum Y (Y max) values compatible with the data. We find differences between the clusters with M13 showing the largest value (Y max ∼ 0.30) and M3 the smallest (Y max ∼ 0.27). In general, we observe that these values are correlated with the colour extensions of their horizontal branches and with the range of the observed NaO anticorrelations.
The Swift UV-Optical Telescope (UVOT) has been observing core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) of all subtypes in the UV and optical since 2005. Here we present 50 CCSNe observed with the Swift UVOT, analyzing their UV properties and behavior. Where we have multiple UV detections in all three UV filters (lambda(c) = 1928-2600 angstrom), we generate early time bolometric light curves, analyze the properties of these light curves and the UV contribution to them, and derive empirical corrections for the UV-flux contribution to optical-IR based bolometric light curves.
Globular clusters represent stellar laboratories where observations can be used to validate models of stellar evolution. In this study, we put forth new ultraviolet (UV) photometric results of stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808. NGC 2808 is known to host multiple stellar populations that include at least four distinct groups of horizontal branch (HB) stars. We have observed this cluster with the AstroSat-UltraViolet Imaging Telescope in two far-UV (FUV) and five near-UV (NUV) filters, respectively. These UV filters enable the identification of HB populations of stars. The results from four NUV filters exhibit bimodal distributions in magnitude histograms. The nature of bimodality has been investigated on the basis of distinct stellar types contributing to those bands. The colour-magnitude diagrams constructed using FUV and NUV filters enable the location of hot stellar populations, viz. stars belonging to red HB (RHB), blue HB, extreme HB, blue hook branch, and post-asymptotic giant branch. Prominent gaps are observed in the UV colour-magnitude diagrams. We report for the first time a photometric gap in an NUV colour-magnitude diagram that segregates the RHB population of this cluster into two groups that are likely to be associated with distinct generations of stars. We also investigate the spatial density distributions of various groups of stars in the cluster and comment on the proposed formation models of multiple populations.
We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the field of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh in M51 performed at approximate to 1161 rest-frame days after explosion using the Wide Field Camera 3 and near-UV filters F225W and F336W. A star-like object is detected in both bands and the photometry indicates it has negative (F225W - F336W) color. The observed object is compatible with the companion of the now-vanished yellow supergiant progenitor predicted in interacting binary models. We consider it unlikely that the SN is undergoing strong interaction and thus estimate that it makes a small contribution to the observed flux. The possibilities of having detected an unresolved light echo or an unrelated object are briefly discussed and judged unlikely. Adopting a possible range of extinction by dust, we constrain parameters of the proposed binary system. In particular, the efficiency of mass accretion onto the binary companion must be below 50%, if no significant extinction is produced by newly formed dust. Further multiband observations are required in order to confirm the identification of the object as the companion star. If confirmed, the companion star would already be dominant in the UV-optical regime, so it would readily provide a unique opportunity to perform a detailed study of its properties.
The Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) on-board the Solar Orbiter mission will provide full-sun and high-resolution image sequences of the solar atmosphere at selected spectral emission lines in the extreme and vacuum ultraviolet. After the breadboarding and prototyping activities that focused on key technologies, the EUI project has completed the design phase and has started the final manufacturing of the instrument and its validation. The EUI instrument has successfully passed its Critical Design Review (CDR). The process validated the detailed design of the Optical Bench unit and of its sub-units (entrance baffles, doors, mirrors, camera, and filter wheel mechanisms), and of the Electronic Box unit. In the same timeframe, the Structural and Thermal Model (STM) test campaign of the two units have been achieved, and allowed to correlate the associated mathematical models. The lessons learned from STM and the detailed design served as input to release the manufacturing of the Qualification Model (QM) and of the Flight Model (FM). The QM will serve to qualify the instrument units and sub-units, in advance of the FM acceptance tests and final on-ground calibration.
We report on the detection of UV variability and the persistence of X-ray faintness of the X-ray transient narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy WPVS 007 based on the first year of monitoring with Swift between 2005 October and 2007 January. WPVS 007 has been an unusual source. Although it was X-ray-bright in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, it has been extremely faint in all following X-ray observations. Swift also finds this NLS1 to be X-ray-faint, not detected at a 3 sigma upper limit of 2.6 x 10(-17) W m(-2) in the 0.3-10.0 keV band, confirming that the AGN is still in a low state. During the 2006 July and December observations with the Swift UV-Optical Telescope (UVOT) the AGN became fainter by about 0.2 mag in the UV filters and by about 0.1 mag in V, B, and U compared with the 2005 October to 2006 January and 2006 September to October observations, followed by a rebrightening in the 2007 January observation. This variability can be caused either by a change in the absorption column density, and therefore the reddening in the UV, or by flux variations of the central engine. We also noticed that the flux in the UVOT filters agrees with earlier measurements by the International Ultraviolet Explorer taken between 1993 and 1995, but spectra taken by the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph show that WPVS 007 was fainter in the UV by a factor of at least 2 in 1996. The flat optical/UV spectrum suggests that some UV extinction is present in the spectrum, but that alone cannot at all account for the dramatic fading in the X-ray flux. Most likely we see a partially covering absorber in the X-ray. Alternatively, the current X-ray emission seen from WPVS 007 may also be the emission from the host galaxy.
The ultraviolet imager (UVI) has been developed for the Akatsuki spacecraft (Venus Climate Orbiter mission). The UVI takes ultraviolet (UV) images of the solar radiation reflected by the Venusian clouds with narrow bandpass filters centered at the 283 and 365 nm wavelengths. There are absorption bands of SO2 and unknown absorbers in these wavelength regions. The UV images provide the spatial distribution of SO2 and the unknown absorber around cloud top altitudes. The images also allow us to understand the cloud top morphologies and haze properties. Nominal sequential images with 2-h intervals are used to understand the dynamics of the Venusian atmosphere by estimating the wind vectors at the cloud top altitude, as well as the mass transportation of UV absorbers. The UVI is equipped with off-axial catadioptric optics, two bandpass filters, a diffuser installed in a filter wheel moving with a step motor, and a high sensitivity charge-coupled device with UV coating. The UVI images have spatial resolutions ranging from 200 m to 86 km at sub-spacecraft points. The UVI has been kept in good condition during the extended interplanetary cruise by carefully designed operations that have maintained its temperature maintenance and avoided solar radiation damage. The images have signal-to-noise ratios of over 100 after onboard desmear processing.
The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging from the near-ultraviolet to the I band with the Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3), plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the WFC3 are F275W(λ2704 Å), F336W(λ3355 Å), F438W(λ4325 Å), F555W(λ5308 Å), and F814W(λ8024 Å); the parallel observations with the ACS use the filters F435W(λ4328 Å), F606W(λ5921 Å), and F814W(λ8057 Å). The multiband images are yielding accurate recent (lesssim50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas-star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial scientific results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.
We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1(rc) covering similar to 2600-3300 (A) over circle after removing optical light, and u approximate to 3000-4000 (A) over circle) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 approximate to 2000-2400 (A) over circle). The uvw1(rc) - b colors show a scatter of similar to 0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 (A) over circle. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, similar to 1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.