The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects ofUVradiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be themost feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce.
UV-filters are a group of compounds designed mainly to protect skin against UVA and UVB radiation, but they are also included in plastics, furniture, etc., to protect products from light damage. Their massive use in sunscreens for skin protection has been increasing due to the awareness of the chronic and acute effects of UV radiation. Some organic UV-filters have raised significant concerns in the past few years for their continuous usage, persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. UV-filters end up in waste water and because waste water treatment plants are not efficient in removing them, lipophilic compounds tend to sorb onto sludge and hydrophilics end up in river water, contaminating the existing biota. To better understand the risk associated with UV-filters in the environment a thorough review regarding their physicochemical properties, toxicity and environmental degradation, analytical methods and their occurrence was conducted.
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters, found in many personal care products, are considered emerging contaminants due to growing concerns about potential long-term deleterious effects. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of four commonly used organic UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-3; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC; and butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane, BDM) on human macrophages. Our results indicated that exposure to these four UV filters significantly increased the production of various inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). After exposure to the UV filters, a significant 1.1-1.5 fold increase were found in TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, both the p38 MAPK and the NF-kappa B signaling pathways were enhanced 2 to 10 times in terms of phosphorylation after exposure to the UV filters, suggesting that these pathways are involved in the release of TNF-alpha and IL-6. Molecular docking analysis predicted that all four UV filter molecules would efficiently bind transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which is responsible for the activation of the p38 MAPK and NF-kappa B pathways. Our results therefore demonstrate that exposure to the four organic UV filters investigated may alter human immune system function. It provides new clue for the development of asthma or allergic diseases in terms of the environmental pollutants. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are emerging contaminants that may pose health risks to humans. We measured the concentrations of four commonly used organic UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), homosalate (HMS), and octocrylene (OC)) in 203 indoor dust samples and 98 human urine samples from households in eastern China. The total concentrations of the four organic UV filters ranged from 66.6–56,123.0?ng?g?1in indoor dust and 1.17–52.15?μg?g?1(creatinine-adjusted concentration (Cr)) in urine. BP-3 was the most abundant organic UV filter in the urine samples (median concentration: 1.89?μg?g?1Cr), while OC was the most abundant in the indoor dust samples (median concentration: 325.7?ng?g?1). No significant correlations were found between organic UV filter concentrations in paired urine and dust samples, but the concentrations of UV filters in the indoor dust samples were positively correlated with family income and sunscreen use. The sources of the organic UV filters in the indoor dust samples differed based on the geographical location of the tested household. The fraction of human exposure to organic UV filters that resulted from ingestion or dermal absorption of indoor dust was close to 8%.
We greatly appreciate the shown interest and comments on our article "In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters" offered by MSc Rasmussen and Dr Mech. While we agree with some of the points made in their response to our original article, we disagree with the main conclusions drawn by Rasmussen and Mech.
Due to the concern about the negative effects of exposure to sunlight, UV-filters are being introduced in all kind of cosmetic formulas. Wastewater treatment plants are not able to remove and/or degrade them; consequently they find their way into rivers, lakes and oceans. These chemicals are acquiring a concerning status due to their increasingly common use and the potential risk for the environment.
Several organic UV filters have hormonal activity in vertebrates, as demonstrated in fishes, rodents and human cells. Despite the accumulation of filter contaminants in aquatic systems, research on their effects on the endocrine systems of freshwaters invertebrates is scarce. In this work, the effects of five frequently used UV filters were investigated in embryos and larvae of Chironomus riparius, which is a reference organism in ecotoxicology. LC50 values for larvae as well as the percentage of eclosion of eggs were determined following exposures to: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also known as 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC); 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethylp-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). To assess sublethal effects, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and heat shock protein HSP70 were investigated as biomarkers for endocrine and stress effects at the cellular level. Life-stage-dependent sensitivity was found. In embryos, all of the UV filters provoked a significant overexpression of EcR at 24 h after exposure. OC, 4MBC and OD-PABA also triggered transcriptional activation of the hsp70 stress gene in embryos. In contrast, in larvae, only 4MBC and OMC/EHMC increased EcR and hsp70 mRNA levels and OD-PABA upregulated only the EcR gene. These results revealed that embryos are particularly sensitive to UV filters, which affect endocrine regulation during development. Most UV filters also triggered the cellular stress response, and thus exhibit proteotoxic effects. The differences observed between embryos and larvae and the higher sensitivity of embryos highlight the importance of considering different life stages when evaluating the environmental risks of pollutants, particularly when analyzing endocrine effects. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The occurrence and distribution of eight UV filters benzophenone (BP), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), isoamyl benzoate, and benzyl cinnamate in eleven sites among three rivers, five sewage treatment plants (STPs), and four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different parts of Korea was investigated. The total concentrations of UV filters in the three sampled seasons were 62.9-412 ng L-1 (river), 417-5055 ng L-1 (STP influent), 108-2201 ng L-1 (STP effluent), 122-4154 ng L-1 (WWTP influent), and 120-849 ng L-1 (WWTP effluent). The concentration of the target pollutants in the influent of the treatment systems was directly proportional to the resident population density. A seasonal increase of >27% was observed in the total concentration of the UV filters in the rivers and influents of the treatment plants (TPs) during summer. BP, BP-3, EHMC, 4-MBC, and EHSwere the most dominant, showing a distinct distribution pattern that was dependent on the effectiveness of the treatment process and properties of each compound. The concentrations of the UV filters were higher in the TPs influents than in the rivers, and the most dominant UV filters in the rivers were those with low removal rate. Although biological treatment processes favored the removal of the UV filter compounds in the TPs, complete removal was not achieved before discharge into the rivers. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The UV filters andmusk fragrances have comeinto focus because these compounds are contained and increasingly used not only in sunscreen products but also in many products of daily use, such as cosmetics, skin creams, plastics or varnish. In view of this, the main objective of the present work was to develop and validate a method for the determination of three UV filters, two UV stabilizers and four musks in mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The procedure combined a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction method with an analysis by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). The methodology allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentration levels (ng/g), with mean recoveries ranging from 91 to 112%. A monitoring study was conducted in four beaches in the Portuguese coast which are impacted by recreational activities and outflow of treated waste water effluents in rivers. The results are used to assess the occurrence of UV filters in comparison with UV stabilizers and musk fragrances which indicate other activities than bathing.
Globally, the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the environment has raised critical questions on ecological and human health, but few efforts have focused on the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States. Here, 43 antibiotics, 3 estrogenic hormones, and 5 ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters), which are active ingredients in a variety of personal care products, were measured in water, sediment, and oyster tissue from 14 sites along the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. Fluoroquinolone, macrolide, and sulfonamide antibiotics were detected in water samples. As both human- and animal-labeled antibiotics were found, wastewater effluent and agricultural runoff were identified as potential sources. The highest aqueous-phase concentrations were recorded for norfloxacin (94.1 ng/L), enrofloxacin (17.8 ng/L), sulfamethoxazole (14.8 ng/L), and clarithromycin (9.7 ng/L). Estrone and four UV-filters, namely 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3, homosalate, and octocrylene, were frequently detected in Chesapeake Bay water (93-100%), sediment (100%), and oyster tissue (79-100%). High sediment-phase concentrations of estrone (58.4 ng/g) and 17 beta-estradiol (11.5 ng/g) were detected at the mouth of the Manokin River. Homosalate and benzophenone-3 were present at concentrations as high as 187.9 and 113.7 ng/L in water, 74.2 and 10.8 ng/g in sediment, and 158.3 and 118.0 ng/g in oyster tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate the ubiquitous presence of CECs in the Chesapeake Bay, confirm UV-filter bioaccumulation in oysters, and suggest the need for improved CEC removal during municipal wastewater treatment and agricultural waste management within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.