The majority of published sensitivity analyses (SAs) are either local or one factor-at-a-time (OAT) analyses, relying on unjustified assumptions of model linearity and additivity. Global approaches to sensitivity analyses (GSA) which would obviate these shortcomings, are applied by a minority of researchers.
The present study introduces a multi-criteria index to assess flood hazard areas in a regional scale. Accordingly, a Flood Hazard Index (FHI) has been defined and a spatial analysis in a GIS environment has been applied for the estimation of its value.
Road deposited dust is a complex mixture of pollutants derived from a wide range of sources. Accurate identification of these sources is seminal for effective source-oriented control measures. A range of techniques such as enrichment factor analysis (EF), principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) are available for identifying sources of complex mixtures. However, they have multiple deficiencies when applied individually. This study presents an approach for the effective utilisation of EF, PCA and HCA for source identification, so that their specific deficiencies on an individual basis are eliminated. EF analysis confirmed the non-soil origin of metals such as Na, Cu, Cd, Zn, Sn, K, Ca, Sb, Ba, Ti, Ni and Mo providing guidance in the identification of anthropogenic sources. PCA and HCA identified four sources, with soil and asphalt wear in combination being the most prominent sources. Other sources were tyre wear, brake wear and sea salt. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Noise levels of common sources such as vehicles, whistles, sirens, car horns and crowd sounds are mixed in urban soundscapes. Nowadays, environmental acoustic analysis is performed based on mixture signals recorded by monitoring systems. These mixed signals make it difficult for individual analysis which is useful in taking actions to reduce and control environmental noise. This paper aims at separating, individually, the noise source from recorded mixtures in order to evaluate the noise level of each estimated source. A method based on blind deconvolution and blind source separation in the wavelet domain is proposed. This approach provides a basis to improve results obtained in monitoring and analysis of common noise sources in urban areas. The method validation is through experiments based on knowledge of the predominant noise sources in urban soundscapes. Actual recordings of common noise sources are used to acquire mixture signals using a microphone array in semi-controlled environments. The developed method has demonstrated great performance improvements in identification, analysis and evaluation of common urban sources. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This study deals with the chemical characterization of hospital effluents in terms of the predicted and measured concentrations of 38 pharmaceuticals belonging to 11 different therapeutic classes. The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches through an analysis of a case study referring to a large hospital. It highlights the observed (and expected) ranges of variability for the parameters of the adopted model, presents the results of an uncertainty analysis of direct measurements (due to samplingmode and frequency and chemical analysis) and a sensitivity analysis of predicted concentrations (based on the annual consumption of pharmaceuticals, their excretion rate and annual wastewater volume generated by the hospital). Measured concentrations refer to two sampling campaigns carried out in summer and winter in order to investigate seasonal variability of the selected compounds. Predicted concentrations are compared to measured ones in the three scenarios: summer, winter and the whole year.
Microplastics are increasingly detected in the environment and the consequences on water resources and ecosystems are not clear to date. The present study provides a cost-effective and straightforward method to determine the mass concentrations of polymer types using thermal analysis. Characteristic endothermic phase transition temperatures were determined for seven plastic polymer types using TGA-DSC. Based on that, extracts from wastewater samples were analyzed.
Objective: We describe a methodological framework to estimate potential cost savings in Belgium for a decrease in cardiovascular emergency admissions (ischemic heart disease (IHD), heart rhythm disturbances (HRD), and heart failure) due to a reduction in air pollution.
Background: Heat-waves have a substantial public health burden. Understanding spatial heterogeneity at a fine spatial scale in relation to heat and related mortality is central to target interventions towards vulnerable communities.
Background and objective: Previous epidemiological studies suggested association between parental occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and risk of childhood nervous system tumors, but the results were inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies to re-evaluate this association.