Self-propagating high temperature reaction waves, leading to the synthesis of advanced materials, are investigated in a variety of heterogeneous reaction systems by using a digital high-speed microscopic video recording technique. It is shown that, although on the macroscopic length and time scales, the reaction appears to move in a steady mode, on the microscopic level it has a complex character that is related to the reaction mechanism.
Threshold values of photoperiodic time-measurements correspond approximately to moonlight intensities. Experiments withGlycineandEuglenareveal that this is also the threshold value for synchronization of the circadian cycle. Saturation of this reaction is reached with 10 lx in 12:12 hr light-dark cycles. Thus, moonlight might disturb time measurement.
Single-molecule FRET is a powerful tool for probing the kinetic mechanism of a complex enzymatic reaction. However, not every reaction intermediate can be identified via a distinct FRET value, making it difficult to fully dissect a multistep reaction pathway. Here, we demonstrate a method using sequential kinetic experiments to differentiate each reaction intermediate by a distinct time sequence of FRET signal (a kinetic “fingerprint”). Our model system, the two-way junction hairpin ribozyme, catalyzes a multistep reversible RNA cleavage reaction, which comprises two structural transition steps (docking/undocking) and one chemical reaction step (cleavage/ligation). Whereas the docked and undocked forms of the enzyme display distinct FRET values, the cleaved and ligated forms do not. To overcome this difficulty, we used Mg2+pulse–chase experiments to differentiate each reaction intermediate by a distinct kinetic fingerprint at the single-molecule level. This method allowed us to unambiguously determine the rate constant of each reaction step and fully characterize the reaction pathway by using the chemically competent enzyme–substrate complex. We found that the ligated form of the enzyme highly favors the docked state, whereas undocking becomes accelerated upon cleavage by two orders of magnitude, a result different from that obtained with chemically blocked substrate and product analogs. The overall cleavage reaction is rate-limited by the docking/undocking kinetics and the internal cleavage/ligation equilibrium, contrasting the rate-limiting mechanism of the four-way junction ribozyme. These results underscore the kinetic interdependence of reversible steps on an enzymatic reaction pathway and demonstrate a potentially general route to dissect them.
The reaction of HO-with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)porphinatomanganese(III) chloride (TMP)MnIII(Cl)] in ligating solvents (CH3CN, dimethyl sulfoxide, pyridine) results in formation of (TMP)MnII(≈106M-1·s-r), which in a slower reaction is converted to a product whose structure is suggested to be that of a porphyrin manganese(III) peroxo dimer. Admittance of O2at any time during these reactions leads to formation of the manganese(III) peroxide (TMP)MnIII(O2)-. In nonligating solvents CH2Cl2, (CH3)2CO], the reaction of HO-with (TMP)MnIII(Cl) yields (TMP)MnIV(OH)2.
Temperature-jump studies have been used to detect a rapid reaction in the thermal unfolding of ribonuclease A (RNase A). The fast reaction occurs over a wide range of pH, and the results of a detailed study at pH 1.3 are reported here. Although its amplitude is small, the reaction is easily measurable over the entire temperature range of thermal unfolding. It occurs in the millisecond time range, and is faster by 3-4 orders of magnitude than the slow unfolding reaction studied previously. Unfolding is measured here by the change in absorbance at 287 nm, which reflects the exposure to solvent of buried tyrosine groups. Since the fast reaction has a detectable amplitude only in the temperature range of unfolding, it apparently detects the presence of intermediate, partly-folded states. Previous equilibrium studies of the unfolding of RNase A in the pH range 1-2 have indicated that it is essentially a 2-state reaction, without detectable intermediates.
DNA polymerases facilitate faithful insertion of nucleotides, a central reaction occurring during DNA replication and repair. DNA synthesis (forward reaction) is "balanced," as dictated by the chemical equilibrium by the reverse reaction of pyrophosphorolysis. Two closely spaced divalent metal ions (catalytic and nucleotide-binding metals) provide the scaffold for these reactions. The catalytic metal lowers the pK(a) of O3' of the growing primer terminus, and the nucleotide-binding metal facilitates substrate binding. Recent time-lapse crystallographic studies of DNA polymerases have identified an additional metal ion (product metal) associated with pyrophosphate formation, leading to the suggestion of its possible involvement in the reverse reaction. Here, we establish a rationale for a role of the product metal using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations of the reverse reaction in the confines of the DNA polymerase beta active site. Additionally, site-directed mutagenesis identifies essential residues and metal-binding sites necessary for pyrophosphorolysis. The results indicate that the catalytic metal site must be occupied by a magnesium ion for pyrophosphorolysis to occur. Critically, the product metal site is occupied by a magnesium ion early in the pyrophosphorolysis reaction path but must be removed later. The proposed dynamic nature of the active site metal ions is consistent with crystallographic structures. The transition barrier for pyrophosphorolysis was estimated to be significantly higher than that for the forward reaction, consistent with kinetic activity measurements of the respective reactions. These observations provide a framework to understand how ions and active site changes could modulate the internal chemical equilibrium of a reaction that is central to genome stability.
The molecular reaction mechanism of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis by Ras was investigated by time resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy using caged GTP (P3-1-(2-nitro)phenylethyl guanosine 5′-O-triphosphate) as photolabile trigger. This approach provides the complete GTPase reaction pathway with time resolution of milliseconds at the atomic level. Up to now, one structural model of the GAP?Ras?GDP?AlFxtransition state analog is known, which represents a “snap shot” along the reaction-pathway. As now revealed, binding of GAP to Ras?GTP shifts negative charge from the γ to β phosphate. Such a shift was already identified by FTIR in GTP because of Ras binding and is now shown to be enhanced by GAP binding. Because the charge distribution of the GAP?Ras?GTP complex thus resembles a more dissociative-like transition state and is more like that in GDP, the activation free energy is reduced. An intermediate is observed on the reaction pathway that appears when the bond between β and γ phosphate is cleaved. In the intermediate, the released Piis strongly bound to the protein and surprisingly shows bands typical of those seen for phosphorylated enzyme intermediates. All these results provide a mechanistic picture that is different from the intrinsic GTPase reaction of Ras. FTIR analysis reveals the release of Pifrom the protein complex as the rate-limiting step for the GAP-catalyzed reaction. The approach presented allows the study not only of single proteins but of protein–protein interactions without intrinsic chromophores, in the non-crystalline state, in real time at the atomic level.
Lipid membrane fusion is critical to cellular transport and signaling processes such as constitutive secretion, neurotransmitter release, and infection by enveloped viruses. Here, we introduce a powerful computational methodology for simulating membrane fusion from a starting configuration designed to approximate activated prefusion assemblies from neuronal and viral fusion, producing results on a time scale and degree of mechanistic detail not previously possible to our knowledge. We use an approach to the long time scale simulation of fusion by constructing a Markovian state model with large-scale distributed computing, yielding an understanding of fusion mechanisms on time scales previously impossible to simulate to our knowledge. Our simulation data suggest a branched pathway for fusion, in which a common stalk-like intermediate can either rapidly form a fusion pore or remain in a metastable hemifused state that slowly forms fully fused vesicles. This branched reaction pathway provides a mechanistic explanation both for the biphasic fusion kinetics and the stable hemifused intermediates previously observed experimentally. Our distributed computing and Markovian state model approaches provide sufficient sampling to detect rare transitions, a systematic process for analyzing reaction pathways, and the ability to develop quantitative approximations of reaction kinetics for fusion.
The role of high-potential iron sulfur protein (HiPIP) in donating electrons to the photosynthetic reaction center in the halophilic γ-proteobacteriumHalorhodospira halophilawas studied by EPR and time-resolved optical spectroscopy. A tight complex between HiPIP and the reaction center was observed. The EPR spectrum of HiPIP in this complex was drastically different from that of the purified protein and provides an analytical tool for the detection and characterization of the complexed form in samples ranging from whole cells to partially purified protein. The bound HiPIP was identified as iso-HiPIP II. ItsEmvalue at pH 7 in the form bound to the reaction center was ≈100 mV higher (+140 ± 20 mV) than that of the purified protein. EPR on oriented samples showed HiPIP II to be bound in a well defined geometry, indicating the presence of specific protein–protein interactions at the docking site. At moderately reducing conditions, the bound HiPIP II donates electrons to the cytochrome subunit bound to the reaction center with a half-time of ≤11 μs. This donation reaction was analyzed by using Marcus's outer-sphere electron-transfer theory and compared with those observed in other HiPIP-containing purple bacteria. The results indicate substantial differences between the HiPIP- and the cytochromec2-mediated re-reduction of the reaction center.