The cDNA encoding grass carp intelectin was isolated from a head kidney cDNA library, and termed gcIntL. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcIntL consists of 318 amino acids, and about 55% identical and 74% similar to human intelectin, which is a new type of lectin recognizing galactofuranose, and plays a role in the recognition of bacteria-specific components in animal hosts. The gcIntL gene consists of seven exons and six introns, spacing over approximately 3 kb of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the gcIntL formed a clade with Danio rerio intelectin and 35 kDa serum lectin. By real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis, gcIntL transcripts were significantly induced in head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, and intestine from LPS-stimulated fish. RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the mRNA and protein of gcIntL gene have the same expression pattern, and both were detected in brain, gill, intestine, head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, and heart. Furthermore, gcIntL protein could be detected in gill, intestine, trunk kidney, head kidney, spleen, heart, and brain including medulla oblongata and optic lobe, as determined by immunohistochemistry. This is the first report of intelectin expression pattern in fish, and of recombinant gcIntL and polyclonal antibody against gcIntL. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
beta-Defensin (BD) are cysteine-rich, cationic antimicrobial peptides which play an important role in innate immune system against invading microbes. In the present study, the cDNA cloning, expression analysis, transcriptional regulation and antimicrobial activity of beta-defensin (ScBD) from mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) were characterized. The cDNA sequence of ScBD is 596 bp which encodes a protein of 63 amino acids (aa). The ScBD gene comprises three exons and two introns. The signal peptide is located in the first exon. ScBD contains 6 cysteines, and belongs to fish defensin 2 group based on phylogenetic analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the mRNA transcripts of ScBD were distributed mainly in mucosal and lymphoid organs/tissues including intestine, gill, head kidney, kidney and spleen, with the highest level observed in spleen. Western blotting analysis revealed that the ScBD protein was abundant in head kidney, gill and spleen. A total of 3268 bp 5' flanking region of the ScBD gene promoter was sequenced, which contained a number of putative transcriptional binding sites for transcription factors. These transcription factors were analyzed using in vitro luciferase assay. The DNA region from position of -705 to -498 bp contains positive regulatory elements and that of -227 to +54 bp harbors the TATA which is essential for initiating gene expression. In addition, the ScBD peptide showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia call M15, Staphylococcus aureus and Aeromonas hydrophila, whilst no effect on Edwardsiella tarda. These data suggest that the ScBD is importantly involved in host immune responses to invasion of bacterial pathogens. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays an important rote in interferon-induced antiviral responses, and is also involved in intracellular signaling pathways, including the apoptosis, proliferation, and transcription pathways. In the present study, a PKR-like gene was cloned and characterized from rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. The full length of the rare minnow PKR-like (GrPKZ) cDNA is 1946 bp in Length and encodes a polypeptide of 503 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 57,355 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.83. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the mature peptide contains two Zalpha domains and one S_TKc domain, and is most similar to the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) PKR-like amino acid sequence with an identity of 77%. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that GrPKZ mRNA expression is at low levels in gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle and spleen tissues in healthy animals and up-regulated by viruses and bacteria. After being infected by grass carp reovirus, GrPKZ expression was up-regulated from 24 h post-injection and lasted until the fish became moribund (P < 0.05). Following infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, GrPKZ transcripts were induced at 24 h post-injection (P < 0.05) and returned to control levels at 120 h post-injection. These data imply that GrPKZ is involved in antiviral defense and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in bacterial infection. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) participates in the innate immune response by recognizing viral pathogens. To investigate grass carp immune system responding to GCRV (grass carp reovirus) infection, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic organization of grass carp TLR3 (CiTLR3) was identified and characterized. The full-length genome sequence of CiTLR3 is composed of 5668 nucleotides, including five exons and four introns. The full-length of CiTLR3 cDNA is 3681 bp in length and encodes a polypeptide of 904 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 102,765 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 8.35. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that CiTLR3 has four main structural domains, including a signal peptide sequence, 14 LRR (leucine-rich repeat) motifs, a transmembrane region and a TIR (Toll/interleukin-1 receptor) domain. It is most similar to the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) TLR3 amino acid sequence with an identity of 99%. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that CiTLR3 transcripts were significantly up-regulated starting at day 1 and continued through day 7 following GCRV infection (P < 0.05). These data implied that CiTLR3 is involved in antiviral defense, provide molecular and functional information for grass carp TLR3, and implicate their role in mediating immune protection against grass carp viral diseases. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Argonaute 2 gene plays a pivotal role in RNAi in many species. Herein is the first report of the cloning and characterization of Argonaute 2 gene in fish. The full-length cDNA of Gobiocypris rarus Argonaute 2 (GrAgo2) consisted of 3073 nucleotides encoding 869 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 98.499 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 9.18. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed the presence of two signature domains, PAZ and Piwi. RT-PCR analysis indicated that GrAgo2 mRNA expression could be detected in widespread tissues. After infection with grass carp reovirus, GrAgo2 expression was up-regulated from 12 h post-injection (p 0.05). These data imply that GrAgo2 is involved in antiviral defense in rare minnow. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.