The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects ofUVradiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be themost feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce.
UV-filters are a group of compounds designed mainly to protect skin against UVA and UVB radiation, but they are also included in plastics, furniture, etc., to protect products from light damage. Their massive use in sunscreens for skin protection has been increasing due to the awareness of the chronic and acute effects of UV radiation. Some organic UV-filters have raised significant concerns in the past few years for their continuous usage, persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. UV-filters end up in waste water and because waste water treatment plants are not efficient in removing them, lipophilic compounds tend to sorb onto sludge and hydrophilics end up in river water, contaminating the existing biota. To better understand the risk associated with UV-filters in the environment a thorough review regarding their physicochemical properties, toxicity and environmental degradation, analytical methods and their occurrence was conducted.
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters, found in many personal care products, are considered emerging contaminants due to growing concerns about potential long-term deleterious effects. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of four commonly used organic UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-3; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC; and butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane, BDM) on human macrophages. Our results indicated that exposure to these four UV filters significantly increased the production of various inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, particular tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). After exposure to the UV filters, a significant 1.1-1.5 fold increase were found in TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, both the p38 MAPK and the NF-kappa B signaling pathways were enhanced 2 to 10 times in terms of phosphorylation after exposure to the UV filters, suggesting that these pathways are involved in the release of TNF-alpha and IL-6. Molecular docking analysis predicted that all four UV filter molecules would efficiently bind transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which is responsible for the activation of the p38 MAPK and NF-kappa B pathways. Our results therefore demonstrate that exposure to the four organic UV filters investigated may alter human immune system function. It provides new clue for the development of asthma or allergic diseases in terms of the environmental pollutants. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this article is to summarize biological monitoring information on UV-absorbing compounds, commonly referred as organic UV filters or sunscreen agents, in aquatic ecosystems. To date a limited range of species (macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds), habitats (lakes, rivers, and sea), and compounds (benzophenones and camphors) have been investigated. As a consequence there is not enough data enabling reliable understanding of the global distribution and effect of UV filters on ecosystems. Both liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry-based methods have been developed and applied to the trace analysis of these pollutants in biota, enabling the required selectivity and sensitivity. As expected, the most lipophilic compounds occur most frequently with concentrations up to 7112 ng g-1 lipids in mussels and 3100 ng g-1 lipids (homosalate) in fish. High concentrations have also been reported for 4- methylbenzilidenecamphor (up to 1800 ng g-1 lipids) and octocrylene (2400 ng g-1 lipids). Many fewer studies have evaluated the potential bioaccumulation and biomagnification of these compounds in both fresh and marine water and terrestrial food webs. Estimated biomagnification factors suggest biomagnification in predator- prey pairs, for example bird-fish and fish-invertebrates. Ecotoxicological data and preliminary environmental assessment of the risk of UV filters are also included and discussed.
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are emerging contaminants that may pose health risks to humans. We measured the concentrations of four commonly used organic UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (BP-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), homosalate (HMS), and octocrylene (OC)) in 203 indoor dust samples and 98 human urine samples from households in eastern China. The total concentrations of the four organic UV filters ranged from 66.6–56,123.0?ng?g?1in indoor dust and 1.17–52.15?μg?g?1(creatinine-adjusted concentration (Cr)) in urine. BP-3 was the most abundant organic UV filter in the urine samples (median concentration: 1.89?μg?g?1Cr), while OC was the most abundant in the indoor dust samples (median concentration: 325.7?ng?g?1). No significant correlations were found between organic UV filter concentrations in paired urine and dust samples, but the concentrations of UV filters in the indoor dust samples were positively correlated with family income and sunscreen use. The sources of the organic UV filters in the indoor dust samples differed based on the geographical location of the tested household. The fraction of human exposure to organic UV filters that resulted from ingestion or dermal absorption of indoor dust was close to 8%.
We greatly appreciate the shown interest and comments on our article "In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters" offered by MSc Rasmussen and Dr Mech. While we agree with some of the points made in their response to our original article, we disagree with the main conclusions drawn by Rasmussen and Mech.
Benzophenone-UV filters (BP-UV filters) are extensively used in cosmetics products to avoid damaging effects of UV radiation. Despite their low toxicity, many research papers indicate that BP-UV filters are weak endocrine disruptors (EDCs). There are clear relationships between BP-UV filters exposure and several health disorders such as carcinogenesis and malformations observed in animals. In the present work, a new sample treatment procedure by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is proposed for the extraction of six BPs, namely benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-6 (BP-6), benzophenone-8 (BP-8) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP), in human serum samples, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The method involves an enzymatic treatment to quantify the total content (free plus conjugated species) of BP-UV filters in serum. The extraction parameters were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization approach. Benzophenone-d_(10) (BP-d_(10)) was used as surrogate. Limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.4 to 0.9 ng mL~(-1) and inter-day precision (evaluated as relative standard deviation) ranged from 1.9% to 13.1%. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and a recovery assay. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 97% to 106%, and acceptable linearity was obtained up to concentrations of 40 ng mL~(-1). The method was applied to the determination of the target compounds in human serum samples from 20 randomly selected anonymous individuals.
UV filters, contained in sunscreens and other cosmetic products, as well as in some plastics and industrial products, are nowadays considered contaminants of emerging concern because their widespread and increasing use has lead to their presence in the environment. Furthermore, some UV filters are suspected to have endocrine disruption activity. In the present work, we developed an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of UV filters in tap and lake waters. Sixteen UV filters were extracted from water samples by solid-phase extraction employing graphitized carbon black as adsorbent material. Handling 200 mL of water sample, satisfactory recoveries were obtained for almost all the analytes. The limits of detection and quantification of the method were comparable to those reported in other works, and ranged between 0.7-3.5 and 1.9-11.8 ng/L, respectively; however in our case the number of investigated compounds was larger. The major encountered problem in method development was to identify the background contamination sources and reduce their contribution. UV filters were not detected in tap water samples, whereas the analyses conducted on samples collected from three different lakes showed that the swimming areas are most subject to UV filter contamination.
UV filters are the main ingredients in many cosmetics and personal care products. A significant amount of lipophilic UV filters annually enters the surface water due to large numbers of swimmers and sunbathers. The nature of these compounds cause bioaccumulation in commercial fish, particularly in estuarine areas. Consequently, biomagnification in the food chain will occur. This study estimated the amount of four common UV filters (ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC; butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane, BM-DBM; and benzophenone-3, BP3), which may enter surface water in the Gulf of Mexico. Our data analysis was based on the available research data and EPA standards (age classification/human body parts). The results indicated that among the 14 counties in Texas coastal zones, Nueces, with 43 beaches, has a high potential of water contamination through UV filters; EHMC: 477 kg year(-1); OC: 318 kg year(-1); BM-DBM: 258 kg year(-1); and BP by 159 kg year(-1). Refugio County, with a minimum number of beaches, indicated the lowest potential of UV filter contamination. The sensitive estuarine areas of Galveston receive a significant amount of UV filters. This article suggests action for protecting Texas estuarine areas and controlling the number of tourists and ecotourism that occurs in sensitive areas of the Gulf of Mexico. (C) 2016 Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Sp. z o.o.