We present a birefringence analysis method based on polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) for distinguishing pearls. To cope with the round shape of general pearls, a rotation stage was used for the sample scanning. With the system, the birefringence of several cultured pearls including south sea, Akoya, freshwater cultured pearls, and imitation pearls are analyzed and compared. Interestingly, PS-SS-OCT surely shows well developed birefringence patterns of phase retardation and fast axis orientation with the cultured pearls, whereas the pattern does not appear in the imitation pearls. In addition, the intensity image can help to distinguish the cultured pearls. Therefore, PSSS-OCT enables a more accurate interpretation for identifying the cultured pearls from imitation pearls.
In this paper a bio-hybrid system based on neural cultured is described and the learning processes for programming this biological neuroprocessor are revised. Different authors proposed many different learning techniques for managing neural plasticity, however it is necessary to provide a formal methodology for verifying this induced plasticity and validating this bio-hybrid programming paradigm.
The biocompatibility of the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat osteoblasts, which were cultured on the surfaces of nano-hydroxyapatite/polyetheretherketone (n-HA/PEEK) composites were investigated in this work. The osteoblasts of 24-hour old SD rats were cultured and identified by modified enzymatic digestion in vitro. The morphology and proliferation of cells were observed in CCK-8 regent staining, inverted microscopes, and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The results show that n-HA/PEEK composites have good biocompatibility with SD osteoblasts and that they can promote the growth of the cells that were cultured on the surfaces of the composites. The content of HA in n-HA/PEEK composites plays an important role in cell proliferation.
To study the biological characteristics of sika deer antler dermis layer cells, the dermis layer of growing tip in sika deer antler was collected and a culture and cryopreservation system in vitro for the dermis layer cells was established. The results showed that the antler dermis layer cells could be cultured well within a short term in DMEM medium with 10% FBS in vitro. The cultured dermis layer cells were spindle or rhombic and the cultured cells grew to confluence after 5 days. The cells before the fourth generation appeared uniform. The edge of the cells was smooth and the cytoplasm was uniform and transparent. The cultured cells were closely arranged. The cultured cells changed into flat after the fifth generation and extended more apophysises. The edge of the cultured cells was not smooth and the cells were loosely arranged after merged. The suitable cryopreserved condition for the dermis layer cells was DMEM medium containing 5% DMSO and 10% FBS with stepwise freezing.
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of potentially toxic elements in cultured and wild fish tissues and to assess their risk for human health. For this purpose, sea bass specimens (Dicentrarchus labrax) were sampled in selected fish farm and three other locations along the eastern Adriatic coast. Ranges of element concentrations in sea bass muscles were 1.60-4.46 ppm for As, 0.001-0.079 ppm for Cd, 0.14-49.10 ppm for Cr, 1.38-4.85 ppm for Cu, 0.11-1.31 ppm for Hg, 0.01-0.65 ppm for Pb and 21.9-136.0 ppm for Zn. Mean Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn concentrations in commercially interesting cultured fish samples were below the permissible levels, while mean As values slightly excccd those limits. In wild fishcs mean Cd Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were below the recommended limits, for As, Cr and Hg the mean values were higher. The smallest cultured sea bass samples showed As, Cr, Pb, and Zn concentrations exceeding the recommended limits but values decreased with fish size. Therefore, the metal concentrations in commercial fishes showed no threat for human consumption.
This study describes the development and evaluation of a semiautomatic myocyte edge-detector using digital image processing. The algorithm was developed in Matlab 6.0 using the SDC Morphology Toolbox. Its conceptual basis is the mathematical morphology theory together with the watershed and Euclidean distance transformations. The algorithm enables the user to select cells within an image for automatic detection of their borders and calculation of their surface areas; these areas are determined by adding the pixels within each myocyte's boundaries. The algorithm was applied to images of cultured ventricular myocytes from neonatal rats. The edge-detector allowed the identification and quantification of morphometric alterations in cultured isolated myocytes induced by 72 hours of exposure to a hypertrophic agent (50 mu M phenylephrine). There was a significant increase in the mean surface area of the phenylephrine-treated cells compared with the control cells (p<0.05), corresponding to cellular hypertrophy of approximately 50%. In conclusion, this edge-detector provides a rapid, repeatable and accurate measurement of cell surface areas in a standardized manner. Other possible applications include morphologic measurement of other types of cultured cells and analysis of time-related morphometric changes in adult cardiac myocytes.
We have already shown its feasibility by computer simulations that show a loop circuit can be copied to another area by back-propagation leaning algorithm; this is a key function of brain intelligence, which includes functions such as memory, association, reasoning, and abstraction. We also have found M-sequences in spike trains of cultured neuronal networks. In this paper, we report that we found family or fragment of M-sequence responses also in the instantaneous firing rates (PSTH's) from cultured neural networks of published data and our own data, which suggest the existence of loop circuits with a feedback link composed of 3 to 5 neuron cells or equivalent circuits.
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is a devastating condition characterized by excessive localized production of collagen in the lungs. Over 131,000 people are living with IPF in America (1,2). There is currently no known treatment or cure for the disease. It has recently been shown that IPF myofibroblasts are sensitive to the stiffness of their substrate. Specifically, alpha Smooth Muscle Actin (alpha-SMA), a known indicator of IPF activity, was differentially produced on soft vs. stiff substrates (3). This suggests a mechanotransduction pathway within the IPF myofibroblasts.
The fluorescence properties, both intensity and fluorescence lifetime, of NADH and FAD, two coenzymes of metabolism, are sensitive, high resolution measures of cellular metabolism. However, often in vivo measurements of tissue are not feasible. In this study, we investigate the stability over time of two-photon auto-fluorescence imaging of NADH and FAD in live-cultured tissues. Our results demonstrate that cultured tissues remain viable for at least several days post excision. Furthermore, the optical redox ratio, NADH fluorescence lifetime, and FAD fluorescence lifetime do not significantly change in the cultured tissues over time. With these findings, we demonstrate the potential of sustained tissue culture techniques for optical metabolic imaging.
We investigated the effects of exposure to RF fields (UMTS/IMT-2000; 1950 MHz) on DNA strand breaks in HL-60 cells and micronucleus (MN) formation in human skin fibroblast TIG-119 cells;No significant differences in the DNA strand breaks were observed using Alkaline comet assay nor were the frequencies of MN formation altered in the RF exposure group compared with the sham-exposure and control groups.