Meadow Gold Dairies is a division of Southwest Region of Suiza Foods Corporation headquartered in Dallas, Texas.Our products inclulde milks products, cultured products, fruit drinks and ice cream. Our products are fed with confidence and trust to people around the world.
The Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture (CTSA) supports aquaculture research, development, demonstration, and extension to enhance commercial aquaculture. CTSA's work concerns tropical and subtropical species wherever they are cultured but is primarily conducted in Hawaii, American Samoa, Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, and Palau. The site offers organizational structure information, project reports, a newsletter, fact sheets and educational materials, and a bibliography of journal publications and meeting presentations.
Chemokine receptors have been recently identiÆed as the important co-factorswhich in conjunction with CD4, mediate entry of HIV into its target cells. Thebrain is one of themost prominent targets ofHIVinfection, where it leads to HIVencephalitis (HIVE) and HIV-associated dementia. Knowledge of the distribution,physiology, and pathology of chemokines and chemokine receptors in thehuman brain is fundamental for understanding the pathogenesis of theinteraction between HIV and the central nervous system (CNS). There is alsoincreasing evidence that chemokine receptors expression in the CNS increasesduring pathological, especially inØammatory, conditions. Themajor co-factorsfor HIV infection, CCR5, CCR3, and CXCR4 have been detected in the humanbrain in a variety of cell types including microglia, astrocytes, neurons, andvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, antibodies to chemokine receptorscan also block HIV infectivity in cultured CNS cells. This indicates thatchemokine receptors are likely to have a functional role in the pathogenesis ofHIVE.
We recently reported that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) dephosphorylates RNA polymerase II C-terminal repeats and regulates HIV-1 transcription in vitro. Here we provide evidence that PP1 is also required for Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription and for viral replication in cultured cells. Inhibition of PP1 by overexpression of nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription in transient transfection assays. A mutant of NIPP1 that was defective in binding to PP1 did not have this effect. Also the co-expression of PP1 reversed the inhibitory effect of NIPP1. Adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of NIPP1 significantly reduced HIV-1 transcription induced by Tat-expressing adenovirus in CD4+ HeLa cells that contained an integrated HIV-1 promoter (HeLa MAGI cells). In addition, infection of HeLa MAGI cells with adeno-associated virus-NIPP1 prior to the infection with HIV-1 significantly reduced the level of HIV-1 replication. Our results indicate that PP1 might be a host cell factor that is required for HIV-1 viral transcription. Therefore, nuclear PP1 may represent a novel target for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.
The role of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strain variability remains a key unanswered question in HIV dementia, a condition affecting around 20% of infected individuals. Several groups have shown that viruses within the central nervous system (CNS) of infected patients constitute an independently evolving subset of HIV strains. A potential explanation for the replication and sequestration of viruses within the CNS is the preferential use of certain chemokine receptors present in microglia. To determine the role of specific chemokine coreceptors in infection of adult microglial cells, we obtained a small panel of HIV type 1 brain isolates, as well as other HIV strains that replicate well in cultured microglial cells. These viruses and molecular clones of their envelopes were used in infections, in cell-to-cell fusion assays, and in the construction of pseudotypes. The results demonstrate the predominant use of CCR5, at least among the major coreceptors, with minor use of CCR3 and CXCR4 by some of the isolates or their envelope clones.
Japonica rice (Oryza sativa, L.), Fangxin 4 was cultured under ambient night temperature (ANT) and high night temperature (HNT) in greenhouse. The average HNTs were 4.7°C and 8.6°C greater than ANTs in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The effects of HNT on formation of amyloplast, crystalline structure, thermal properties, and molecular structure were investigated during grain filling stage of 10–35 d after anthesis. Results indicated that amylose contents were gradually formed along with the maturing of rice amyloplast. Moreover, amylose content of HNT treatment decreased by 7.13 %–15.44 % compared with that of ANT at 35 d after anthesis. TO, TP, TC and ΔHgel for HNT were higher than those of ANT. From 10 to 35 d, relative crystallinity presented an increase–decrease–increase pattern, and the relative crystallinity of HNT was 4.06 %–14.51 % higher than that of ANT at 35 d after anthesis. Amylopectin under ANT had a higher percentage of degree of polymerization (DP) 6–11, while amylopectin under HNT had a higher percentage of DP 12–23. HNT stress had an influence on the formation of amylose content and amylopectin structure, and then changed the crystalline and thermal properties of rice starch