CASE DESCRIPTIONA 17-year-old female western lowland gorilla presented with bilateral ocular discharge, conjunctivitis, and rhinitis that was investigated and treated over a 34-month period. Clinical findings, diagnostic results, treatment, and follow-up are described.CLINICAL FINDINGA mild intermittent mucoid ocular discharge was initially noted. 10 months later, conjunctival hyperemia and thickening developed and progressed rapidly to a mass-like lesion covering the right eye. Hematology revealed eosinophilia. Conjunctival cytology revealed eosinophils and neutrophils, and histopathology revealed a chronic proliferative eosinophilic conjunctivitis. 21 months after, the ocular lesions were investigated the gorilla developed masses within both external nares. Histopathology of the nasal lesions revealed chronic-active eosinophilic rhinitis.TREATMENT AND OUTCOMETreatment of the gorilla was based on protocols recommended for human patients. Protocols for mild, moderate, and finally severe disease were used, involving topical and oral combinations of treatments. The gorilla eventually responded to systemic immunosuppressant therapy recommended for severe refractory disease.CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCETo the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of vernal-like conjunctivitis in a western lowland gorilla.
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) are neoplasms that originate from T-cell precursors. Outcomes in adult patients with T-ALL/LBL remain unsatisfactory; early relapse following intensive induction chemotherapy is a concern, and patients with relapsed or refractory disease have a poor prognosis. Romidepsin is a potent, class 1 selective histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma who have had ≥1 prior therapy and patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who have had ≥1 prior systemic therapy. Here, we report the case of an adult patient with T-ALL refractory to induction hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD). Treatment with romidepsin was initiated, and romidepsin in combination with hyper-CVAD resulted in complete remission, with mild tumor lysis syndrome as the only detectable additional toxicity. The patient eventually underwent allogeneic stem cell transplant while in first complete remission. Prior studies have shown that romidepsin is capable of inducing durable responses with manageable toxicities in patients with mature T-cell lymphomas. This case study describes the successful use of romidepsin in combination with hyper-CVAD in an adult patient with refractory T-ALL and highlights the activity of romidepsin in the T-cell lineage. The potential of romidepsin-containing regimens in patients with T-ALL/LBL deserves further study.
Disorders of sex development generally present in the neonatal period with ambiguity of external genitalia. We report a very old male patient presenting at 75 years because of panhypopituitarism and a large nonsecreting pituitary macroadenoma secondary to long-standing primary hypogonadism due to 46,XX sex reversal disorder now first diagnosed. Sex development disorders may go unrecognised for the entire life span, despite infertility and long-standing primary gonadic failure may lead to uncommon complications.
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in children is rare with almost 40% diagnosed as cryptogenic. One possible mechanism associated with AIS is an elevated Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] level. Here, we discuss the case of an 11-year old boy who presented with multiple thrombotic strokes secondary to elevated Lp(a), which was identified as the only risk factor and immediately treated with lipoprotein apheresis (LA). Eighteen months post-AIS, he is still receiving LA treatments and has made remarkable progress in his recovery without another cerebrovascular event.