Microphysiologic systems (MPS), including new organ-on-a-chip technologies, recapitulate tissue microenvironments by employing specially designed tissue or cell culturing techniques and microfluidic flow. Such systems are designed to incorporate physiologic factors that conventional 2D or even 3D systems cannot, such as the multicellular dynamics of a tissue–tissue interface or physical forces like fluid sheer stress. The female reproductive system is a series of interconnected organs that are necessary to produce eggs, support embryo development and female health, and impact the functioning of non-reproductive tissues throughout the body. Despite its importance, the human reproductive tract has received less attention than other organ systems, such as the liver and kidney, in terms of modeling with MPS. In this review, we discuss current gaps in the field and areas for technological advancement through the application of MPS. We explore current MPS research in female reproductive biology, including fertilization, pregnancy, and female reproductive tract diseases, with a focus on their clinical applications. Impact statement This review discusses existing microphysiologic systems technology that may be applied to study of the female reproductive tract, and those currently in development to specifically investigate gametes, fertilization, embryo development, pregnancy, and diseases of the female reproductive tract. We focus on the clinical applicability of these new technologies in fields such as assisted reproductive technologies, drug testing, disease diagnostics, and personalized medicine.
Schistosome parasites exhibit separate sexes and with the evolution of sex they have developed an intricate relationship between the male and female worms such that signals between the male and female that are initiated at the time of mating, regulate female reproductive development and subsequent egg production. As the egg stage is responsible for pathogenesis and transmission, understanding the molecular mechanisms of female reproductive development may identify novel targets for the control of transmission and morbidity of this major world public health problem. Recent data have demonstrated that the pairing process, proliferation, and differentiation of vitelline cells, expression of female-specific genes and egg embryogenesis are regulated by the TGFβ pathway and protein tyrosine kinases.
Highlights • Scientific legacy of Louis J. Guillette Jr., 1955-2015. • Evolution and development of reproductive endocrine function. • Characterization of endocrine disrupting chemicals. • Connection between wildlife and human in reproductive physiology.
Development of the parasitoid : the female laid and egg longitudinally between the first and second abdominal sternite of the host larvae (a), the parasitoid larvae developed as semi-ectoparasitoid (b), and spun a cocoon some centimetres away after the host body was devoured (c, d). The overall development time changed significantly between the two sexes of . (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is reported as a cosmopolitan parasitoid of coleopteran including a major pest of stored products, the confused flour beetle . The reproductive biology, and hence biocontrol potential of is relatively little known. Here we describe and evaluate aspects of egg size, immature development, adult mating behaviour, pre-oviposition time, fecundity, host attack and use, and adult longevity. Our key findings are that ≈72% of presented immatures presented to females were attacked and ≈39% of these were fed on destructively with the remainder oviposited onto. First instar host larvae and host pupae were only utilized for feeding, second and third instar larvae were commonly used for either feeding or oviposition while fourth, fifth and sixth instar hosts were almost exclusively used for oviposition. Females usually laid single egg clutches and their average lifetime fecundity was ≈16.5 eggs. Females regularly provisioned with hosts often ceased laying eggs up to several weeks before their death but continued to kill and feed on hosts during this period. Adult longevity was greatly enhanced by the provision of hosts (females) or by non-host food sources (males). We conclude that the inoculative biocontrol potential of is likely to be limited by a low realized fecundity and the combination with other control methods in an IPM-approach is needed. Its ability to find and kill hosts may make it more suitable for inundative deployment.
Genlisea violacea is a Brazilian endemic carnivorous plant species distributed in the cerrado biome, mainly in humid environments, on sandy and oligotrophic soil or wet rocks. Studies on reproductive biology or pollination in the Lentibulariaceae are notably scarce; regarding the genus Genlisea, the current study is the first to show systematic and standardised research on reproductive biology from field studies to describe the foraging of visiting insects and determine the effective pollinators of Genlisea. We studied two populations of G.violacea through the observation of flower visitors for 4months of the rainy and dry seasons. Stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability, and breeding system were evaluated together with histochemistry and morphological analyses of flowers. The flowers showed stigmatic receptivity of 100% in open buds and mature flowers, reducing to 80% for senescent flowers. Nearly 80% of pollen grains are viable, decreasing to 40-45% after 48h. Nectar is produced by glandular trichomes inside the spur. Two bee species are effective pollinators: one of the genus Lasioglossum (subgenus Dialictus: Halictidae) and the other of the genus Ceratina (subgenus Ceratinula: family Apidae). Moreover, bee-like flies of the Syrphidae family may also be additional pollinators.Genlisea violacea is an allogamous and self-compatible species. The differences in flower-visiting fauna for both populations can be attributed to factors such as climate, anthropogenic effect, seasonal factors related to insects and plants, as well as the morphological variation of flowers in both populations.
Macropus agilis,) show extreme annual variation in reproductive rates, linked to stochastic variation in wet season rainfall. The seasonal timing of initiation and cessation of breeding in snakes (,Tropidonophis mairii,) and wallabies (,In the wet–dry tropics of northern Australia, temperatures are high and stable year-round but monsoonal rainfall is highly seasonal and variable both annually and spatially. Many features of reproduction in vertebrates of this region may be adaptations to dealing with this unpredictable variation in precipitation, notably by (i) using direct proximate (rainfall-affected) cues to synchronize the timing and extent of breeding with rainfall events, (ii) placing the eggs or offspring in conditions where they will be buffered from rainfall extremes, and (iii) evolving developmental plasticity, such that the timing and trajectory of embryonic differentiation flexibly respond to local conditions. For example, organisms as diverse as snakes (,Acrochordus arafurae,) and rats (,) also varies among years, depending upon precipitation. An alternative adaptive route is to buffer the effects of rainfall variability on offspring by parental care (including viviparity) or by judicious selection of nest sites in oviparous taxa without parental care. A third type of adaptive response involves flexible embryonic responses (including embryonic diapause, facultative hatching and temperature-dependent sex determination) to incubation conditions, as seen in squamates, crocodilians and turtles. Such flexibility fine-tunes developmental rates and trajectories to conditions–-especially, rainfall patterns–-that are not predictable at the time of oviposition.,), crocodiles (,Crocodylus porosus,), birds (,Rattus colletti,Liasis fuscus,Anseranas semipalmata
is an antipatharian species common to Macaronesia, occurring in depths between 20 and 1425 m. Despite its importance as a habitat-forming species, there is no information about its basic biology. The aim of the current study is to describe its reproductive strategy, gametogenic cycle and reproductive timing. Sampling was performed monthly on six tagged colonies during one year and specimens were histologically processed. was found to be a gonochoric broadcast spawner. Gametogenesis took place within the primary transversal mesenteries, and followed an annual cycle. The reproductive season coincided with an increase in seawater temperature but spawning, inferred from the disappearance of gametes, likely happened after the sea surface temperature peak of the year (September 2009). Polyp fecundity ranged from 1 to 309 oocytes/polyp. A decrease in polyp fecundity was detected in samples at the higher pre-spawning maturity stage, indicating possible repetitive spawning or oocyte absorption. Intra-colonial comparisons revealed a longer duration of the reproductive cycle in the medial colony section, and a gradient of increased oocyte size towards the apical section, possibly due to intra-colonial differences in energy allocation between reproduction and other biological processes, or as a strategy against predation on gametes/larvae. Colony height was positively correlated with polyp fecundity indicating that the reproductive output increases with colony size.
Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso) Hariot is a large kelp commonly found on the exposed rocky shores of the Chilean coastline. It is endemic to the Southern Hemisphere and is used for direct consumption in the human diet and for alginate extraction; it is commonly known as “cochayuyo” (word from Chilean indigenous population “Mapudungun” language). The species occurs in the sub-Antarctic region and is found from Coquimbo (30° S) to Cape Horn (56° S). This study investigates and describes the seasonal reproductive strategies of D. antarctica located in the far south of the Chilean coast, in the region of the Magallanes (51–56° S), Chile, during the period of a year. Samples were taken in quadrants of 10 m2 parallel to the coastline in the intertidal zone of three locations during consecutive seasons. Both the phenological stages and the different states of maturity in individuals were determined. These findings were used to describe the main characteristics of the reproductive cycle and the spatial heterogeneity that may exist between the reproductive processes within each studied area. The results indicate that in all three studied localities of D. antarctica reproductive individuals are present throughout the year. The largest amount of reproductive individuals tends to exist in autumn and winter, with the numbers subsequently decreasing in spring and summer. In all studied localities, it was possible to identify male and female non-reproductive individuals. The largest number of male and female plants in the studied populations was found from autumn to winter; however, there were shifts in the proportions during these periods that lead to an increase in male over female fronds. In all localities, both male and female individuals in different stages of maturity were found, with the level of maturity depending on locality and season. Mature fronds were found more frequently during autumn and winter although the measures of maturity vary between different localities. Based on these results we conclude that D. antarctica is a species with present reproductive individuals throughout the year, similar to populations of this species described for other sub-Antarctic latitude. It is possible that there could be a cryptic species in the region, presenting morphological and reproductive variability that did not agree well with the circumscription of the species. Therefore, studies of ecophysiological and molecular aspects are needed to clarify the taxonomic status of this species in the sub-Antarctic region of Magallanes.