The machine commissioning of KEKB started in December 1998 and its operation was terminated at the end of June 2010 to upgrade KEKB to SuperKEKB. In this paper, we summarize the history of KEKB and show the achievements made there.
The topological and kinematical characteristics of hadron interactions have been studied using a lead-emulsion target exposed to 2, 4, and 10 GeV/c hadron beams. A total length of 60 m pi(-) tracks was followed using a high-speed automated emulsion scanning system. A total of 318 hadron interaction vertices and their secondary charged particle tracks were reconstructed. The measurement results of interaction lengths, charged particle multiplicity, emission angles, and momenta of secondary charged particles are compared with a Monte Carlo simulation and appear to be consistent. Nuclear fragments emitted from interaction vertices were also detected by a newly developed emulsion scanning system with wide-angle acceptance. Their emission angle distributions are in good agreement with the simulated distributions. The probabilities of an event being associated with at least one fragment track are found to be greater than 50% for beam momentum P > 4 GeV/c and are well reproduced by the simulation. These experimental results validate the estimation of the background due to hadron interactions in the sample of tau decay candidates in the OPERA nu(mu) -> nu(tau) oscillation experiment.
The construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been a massive endeavor spanning almost 30 years from conception to commissioning. Building the machine with the highest possible energy (7 TeV) in the existing LEP tunnel of 27 km circumference and with a tunnel diameter of only 3.8m has required considerable innovation. The first was the development of an idea first proposed by Bob Palmer at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1978, where the two rings are integrated into a single magnetic structure. This compact 2-in-1 structure was essential for the LHC due to both the limited space available in the existing Large Electron-Positron collider tunnel and the cost. The second innovation was the bold move to use superfluid helium cooling on a massive scale, which was imposed by the need to achieve a high (8.3 T) magnetic field using an affordable Nb-Ti superconductor. In this article, no attempt is made to give a comprehensive review of the machine design. This can be found in the LHC Design Report , which gives a detailed description of the machine as it was built and comprehensive references. A more popular description of the LHC and its detectors can be found in . Instead, this is a more personal account of the project from approval to commissioning, describing some of the main technologies and some of the trials and tribulations encountered in bringing this truly remarkable machine alive.
Cold dark matter models predict the existence of a large number of substructures within dark matter haloes. If the cold dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles, their annihilation within these substructures could lead to diffuse GeV emission that would dominate the annihilation signal of the host halo. In this work we search for GeV emission from three nearby galaxy clusters: Coma, Virgo and Fornax. We first remove known extragalactic and galactic diffuse gamma-ray backgrounds and point sources from the Fermi 2-yr catalogue and find a significant residual diffuse emission in all three clusters. We then investigate whether this emission is due to (i) unresolved point sources, (ii) dark matter annihilation or (iii) cosmic rays (CR). Using 45 months of Fermi-Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) data we detect several new point sources (not present in the Fermi 2-yr point source catalogue) which contaminate the signal previously analysed by Han et al. Including these and accounting for the effects of undetected point sources, we find no significant detection of extended emission from the three clusters studied. Instead, we determine upper limits on emission due to dark matter annihilation and CR. For Fornax and Virgo, the limits on CR emission are consistent with theoretical models, but for Coma the upper limit is a factor of 2 below the theoretical expectation. Allowing for systematic uncertainties associated with the treatment of CR, the upper limits on the cross-section for dark matter annihilation from our clusters are more stringent than those from analyses of dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way. Adopting a boost factor of ∼103 from subhaloes on cluster luminosity as suggested by recent theoretical models, we rule out the thermal cross-section for supersymmetric dark matter particles for masses as large as 100 GeV (depending on the annihilation channel).
In regions of very high dark matter density such as the Galactic Centre, the capture and annihilation of WIMP dark matter by stars has the potential to significantly alter their evolution. We describe the dark stellar evolution code DarkStars, and present a series of detailed grids of WIMP-influenced stellar models for main-sequence stars. We describe the changes in stellar structure and main-sequence evolution which occur as a function of the rate of energy injection by WIMPs, for masses of 0.3-2.0 M⊙ and metallicities Z= 0.0003-0.02. We show what rates of energy injection can be obtained using realistic orbital parameters for stars at the Galactic Centre, including detailed consideration of the velocity and density profiles of dark matter. Capture and annihilation rates are strongly boosted when stars follow elliptical rather than circular orbits. If there is a spike of dark matter induced by the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre, single solar mass stars following orbits with periods as long as 50 yr and eccentricities as low as 0.9 could be significantly affected. Binary systems with similar periods about the Galactic Centre could be affected on even less eccentric orbits. The most striking observational effect of this scenario would be the existence of a binary consisting of a low-mass protostar and a higher mass evolved star. The observation of low-mass stars and/or binaries on such orbits would either provide a detection of WIMP dark matter, or place stringent limits on the combination of the WIMP mass, spin-dependent nuclear-scattering cross-section, halo density and velocity distribution near the Galactic Centre. In some cases, the derived limits on the WIMP mass and spin-dependent nuclear-scattering cross-section would be of comparable sensitivity to current direct-detection experiments.
About one year ago, it was speculated that decaying or annihilating light dark matter (LDM) particles could explain the flux and extension of the 511-keV line emission in the Galactic Centre. Here, we present a thorough comparison between theoretical expectations of the Galactic positron distribution within the LDM scenario and observational data from INTEGRAL/SPI. Unlike previous analyses, there is now enough statistical evidence to put tight constraints on the shape of the dark matter (DM) halo of our Galaxy, if the Galactic positrons originate from DM. For annihilating candidates, the best fit to the observed 511-keV emission is provided by a radial density profile with inner logarithmic slope γ= 1.03 ± 0.04. In contrast, decaying DM requires a much steeper density profile, γ > 1.5, rather disfavoured by both observations and numerical simulations. Within the annihilating LDM scenario, a velocity-independent cross-section would be consistent with the observational data while a cross-section purely proportional to v 2 can be rejected at a high confidence level. Assuming the most simplistic model where the Galactic positrons are produced as primaries, we show that the LDM candidate should be a scalar rather than a spin-1/2 particle and obtain a very stringent constraint on the value of the positron production cross-section to explain the 511-keV emission. One consequence is that the value of the fine structure constant α should differ from that recommended in the CODATA (Committee on Data for Science and Technology). This is a very strong test for the LDM scenario and an additional motivation in favour of experiments measuring α directly. Our results finally indicate that an accurate measurement of the shape of the dark halo profile could have a tremendous impact on the determination of the origin of the 511-keV line and vice versa.
Excursion set theory, where density perturbations evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale, provides a method for computing the mass function of cosmological structures like dark matter haloes, sheets and filaments. The computation of these mass functions is mapped into the so-called first-passage time problem in the presence of a moving barrier. In this paper we use the path-integral formulation of the excursion set theory developed recently to analytically solve the first-passage time problem in the presence of a generic moving barrier, in particular the barrier corresponding to ellipsoidal collapse. We perform the computation for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian initial conditions and for a window function which is a top-hat in wavenumber space. The expression of the halo mass function for the ellipsoidal collapse barrier and with non-Gaussianity is therefore obtained in a fully consistent way and it does not require the introduction of any form factor artificially derived from the Press-Schechter formalism based on the spherical collapse and usually adopted in the literature.
The excursion set theory, where density perturbations evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale, provides a method for computing the dark matter halo mass function. The computation of the mass function is mapped into the so-called first-passage time problem in the presence of a moving barrier. The excursion set theory is also a powerful formalism to study other properties of dark matter haloes such as halo bias, accretion rate, formation time, merging rate and the formation history of haloes. This is achieved by computing conditional probabilities with non-trivial initial conditions, and the conditional two-barrier first-crossing rate. In this paper we use the path integral formulation of the excursion set theory to calculate analytically these conditional probabilities in the presence of a generic moving barrier, including the one describing the ellipsoidal collapse, and for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian initial conditions. While most of our analysis associated with Gaussian initial conditions assumes Markovianity (top-hat in momentum space smoothing, rather than generic filters), the non-Markovianity of the random walks induced by non-Gaussianity is consistently accounted for. We compute, for a generic barrier, the first two scale-independent halo bias parameters, the conditional mass function and the halo formation time probability, including the effects of non-Gaussianities. We also provide the expression for the two-constant-barrier first-crossing rate when non-Markovian effects are induced by a top-hat filter function in real space.
We study the scale‐dependent bias of the halo power spectrum arising from primordial non‐Gaussianity. We present an analytic result of the halo bias including up to the trispectrum contributions. We find that the scale‐dependent bias opens a new possibility of probing the relation between the non‐linearity parameters f NL and τ NL .