The main compounds of off-odor volatiles from irradiated refrigerated vacuum-packaged pork were analyzed by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The analytical results showed that the main compounds of off-odor volatiles were dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, S-methyl thioacetate, and methanethiol. It was proved that the off-odor volatile came from irradiated S-containing amino acid and thiamin.
Microsatellite markers can provide information on the family structure and genetic diversity based on legible co-dominant Mendel inheritance fashion in diploids. However, parentage and genetics analysis of sturgeon using microsatellite markers is complicated by the polyploidy nature of the species. In the present study, the inheritance mode of microsatellite loci is shown using 3 families created from wild Chinese sturgeon ( Acipenser sinensis). Primers As-073, Spl-168, and As-100 indicated a maximum of four even-intensity bands per individual and pairwise combination of alleles segregation in the progeny that fit tetrasomic inheritance ( P > 0.05). Double reduction exhibited at As-073 simultaneously gave evidence of tetrasomic inheritance. The mode of inheritance at As-074 and Afu-54, both expressing more than two alleles in one individual, could not be ultimately determined because of few inheritance data. The occurrence of null allele at Spl-168 and As-074 was noted.
Twenty-five sets of microsatellite primers developed from lake sturgeon ( Acipenser fulvescens) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) genomic DNA were tested on Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis. Ten sets of primers successfully produced resolvable amplicons, and four of these sets ( Afu-39, Afu-54, Afu-68, and Spl-168) were used to analyze genetic variation in mature adults, juveniles, and single family of Chinese sturgeon from the Yangtze River. Offspring from the single family were stocked prior to the juvenile sample being taken. Results from genotyping parents and offspring indicated that all four loci appear to be tetrasomic and all alleles appear to segregate among the offspring in 1 : 1 ( presence : absence) ratio. Neighbor-joining based on band-sharing in coupling with parentage analysis revealed that hatchery propagated individuals may comprise 5-10% of the juvenile population from stocking of 30 000-60 000 larvae.
The gonadotropin alpha subunit (cGTH alpha), gonadotropinII beta subunit (cGTHII beta), somatolactin (cSL), and prolactin (cPRL) were isolated from the pituitaries of common carps, purified by traditional chromatographic analysis, identified by mass-chromatographic analysis, and used as immunogens in the B-lymphocyte hybridoma technique. Totally, 7, 11, 17, and 8 hybridoma cell lines were established, which were able to stably secrete monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against cGTH alpha, cGTHII beta, cSL, and cPRL, and designated as FMU-cGTH alpha 1-7, FMU-cGTHII beta 1-11, FMU-cSL 1-17, and FMU-cPRL 1-8, respectively. The isotype, titer, and specificity were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, and application of these mAbs in the aforementioned tests has been proved. Furthermore, sensitive sandwich-ELISA systems for quantitative detection of the hormones mentioned above were also developed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The power-time curves of Tetrahymena thermophila exposed to tributyltin (TBT) were detected by microcalorimetry. Metabolic rate (r) decreased significantly while peak time (PT) increased with the enhancement of TBT level. Compared with the measured multibiomarker including catalase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutathione S-transferase, ATPase and membrane fluidity, PT and r could be sensitive biomarkers for assessing TBT toxicity at cellular level. The effective concentrations obtained by them were consistent to those obtained by the protozoan community toxicity test. As a result, the microcalorimetric assay of T. thermophila had a great potential in assessing TBT acute toxicity and monitoring TBT pollution in the freshwater ecosystem.
Gold-lined sea bream (Rhabdosargus sarba) were intraperitoneally injected with 35 mg/kg benzo a] pyrene (in DMSO), with fish administered DMSO as the solvent control. Fish were sacrificed 3 days post injection and their livers dissected for the analysis of adenosine triphosphates (ATPase), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), DNA adducts and ethyoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). Exposure to Ba]P resulted in reduced ATPase activity, elevated GST activity and DNA adduct level, but no apparent change in EROD activity.
Construction of hydroelectric reservoirs in a certain large watershed of China has led to a marked rise in mercury concentration in fish. Correlation analysis and stepwise regression of R values (ratio of mercury concentration in carp from 12 reservoirs and mercury concentration in carp from rivers which feed into the reservoirs) and various hydrologic parameters demonstrate that the ratio of catchment area and runoff is the crucial determining factor. Other determining factors are the ratio of flooding area of land and reservoir area of dead storage capacity, and the reciprocal of reservoir area. On this basis, the predictive models of mercury accumulation in carp after reservoir construction, with one and two parameter, respectively, were obtained. The predictive models were found to be of high precision.
The gynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, is a unique model system for studying evolutionary genetics and selective breeding, owing to its specific genetic background and reproductive modes. Five gynogenetic clones were analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, using 30 10-nucleotide-long primers. Twenty-six primers produced well-amplified DNA fragments with reproducible banding patterns, and 24 primers were polymorphic. Nearly identical banding patterns were observed among individuals within each clone, suggesting that each clone might possess a specific pattern owing to its gynogenesis. In contrast, the RAPD patterns of the five clones differed from each other. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using UPGMA cluster analysis based on a total of 3,744 distinguishable fragments (156 per individual). Average genetic distances within and among the five clones clearly indicated their intraclonal homogeneity, interclonal heterogeneity, and phylogenetic relationships. Clones A and P were the most closely related, whereas the most divergence was seen between clone D and clone E or F. A total of 88 polymorphic fragments were scored from 24 primers after excluding bands that were monomorphic for the five clones. Most primers corresponding to the polymorphic fragments amplified reproducible markers specific for one clone or that were shared by two, three, or four clones. Several primers (e.g., Opj-1, Opj-7, and Opp-10) produced abundant banding patterns that could be used to discriminate between the five clones. Markers specific for one or two clones were also identified. The RAPD markers identified in this study will likely benefit evolutionary genetics and selective breeding studies. Copyright (C) 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.