Conservation status and priorities of amphibians from the Quindío Department, Colombia We reviewed the conservation status and priorities for amphibians from the Quindío region of Colombia, with the purpose of proposing conservation actions. We modeled the potential distribution of threatened species using the maximum entropy algorithm in MaxEnt and evaluated representability in the Departmental System of Protected Areas for Quindío (Spanish acronym: SIDAPQ). We prioritized areas for amphibian conservation using the algorithm ILV4 adjacency in ConsNet. We recorded 45 species, 24.4% of which are included in threatened categories on the IUCN Red List. Over 50% of the distribution and records of the threatened amphibians occurred inside the SIDAPQ. Prioritized areas to achieve representation goals of 10, 20 and 30% of amphibian distribution are highly fragmented and have only approximately 30% of prioritized distribution in the SIDAPQ. Considering this scenario we propose a conservation strategy on the landscape level that includes agroecosystems, maintaining their heterogeneity and eliminating or mitigating threat factors.
More than half a million specimens of wild-caught Lepidoptera caterpillars have been reared for their parasitoids, identified, and DNA barcoded over a period of 34 years (and ongoing) from Area de Conservacion de Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. This provides the world's best location-based dataset for studying the taxonomy and host relationships of caterpillar parasitoids. Among Hymenoptera, Microgastrinae (Braconidae) is the most diverse and commonly encountered parasitoid subfamily, with many hundreds of species delineated to date, almost all undescribed. Here, we reassess the limits of the genus Apanteles sensu stricto, describe 186 new species from 3,200+ parasitized caterpillars of hundreds of ACG Lepidoptera species, and provide keys to all 205 described Apanteles from Mesoamerica -including 19 previously described species in addition to the new species. The Mesoamerican Apanteles are assigned to 32 species-groups, all but two of which are newly defined. Taxonomic keys are presented in two formats: traditional dichotomous print versions and links to electronic interactive versions (software Lucid 3.5). Numerous illustrations, computer-generated descriptions, distributional information, wasp biology, and DNA barcodes (where available) are presented for every species. All morphological terms are detailed and linked to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology website. DNA barcodes (a standard fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene), information on wasp biology (host records, solitary/gregariousness of wasp larvae), ratios of morphological features, and wasp microecological distributions were used to help clarify boundaries between morphologically cryptic species within species-complexes. Because of the high accuracy of host identification for about 80% of the wasp species studied, it was possible to analyze host relationships at a regional level. The ACG species of Apanteles attack mainly species of Hesperiidae, Elachistidae and Crambidae (Lepidoptera). About 90% of the wasp species with known host records seem to be monophagous or oligophagous at some level, parasitizing just one host family and commonly, just one species of caterpillar. Only 15 species (9%) parasitize species in more than one family, and some of these cases are likely to be found to be species complexes. We have used several information sources and techniques (traditional taxonomy, molecular, software-based, biology, and geography) to accelerate the process of finding and describing these new species in a hyperdiverse group such as Apanteles. The following new taxonomic and nomenclatural acts are proposed. Four species previously considered to be Apanteles are transferred to other microgastrine genera: Dolichogenidea hedyleptae (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Dolichogenidea politiventris (Muesebeck, 1958), comb. n., Rhygoplitis sanctivincenti (Ashmead, 1900), comb. n., and Illidops scutellaris (Muesebeck, 1921), comb. rev. One European species that is a secondary homonym to a Mesoamerican species is removed from Apanteles and transferred to another genus: Iconella albinervis (Tobias, 1964), stat. rev. The name Apanteles albinervican Shenefelt, 1972, is an invalid replacement name for Apanteles albinervis (Cameron, 1904), stat. rev., and thus the later name is reinstated as valid. The following 186 species, all in Apanteles and all authored by Fernandez-Triana, are described as species nova: adelinamoralesae, adrianachavarriae, adrianaguilarae, adrianguadamuzi, aichagirardae, aidalopezae, albanjimenezi, alejandromasisi, alejandromorai, minorcarmonai, alvarougaldei, federicomatarritai, anabellecordobae, rostermoragai, anamarencoae, anamartinesae, anapiedrae, anariasae, andreacalvoae, angelsolisi, arielopezi, bernardoespinozai, bernyapui, bettymarchenae, bienvenidachavarriae, calixtomoragai, carloscastilloi, carlosguadamuzi, eliethcantillanoae, carlosrodriguezi, carlosviquezi, carloszunigai, carolinacanoae, christianzunigai, cinthiabarrantesae, ciriloumanai, cristianalemani, cynthiacorderoae, deifiliadavilae, dickyui, didiguadamuzi, diegoalpizari, diegotorresi, diniamartinezae, duniagarciae, duvalierbricenoi, edgarjimenezi, edithlopezae, eduardoramirezi, edwinapui, eldarayae, erickduartei, esthercentenoae, eugeniaphilipsae, eulogiosequeira, felipechavarriai, felixcarmonai, fernandochavarriai, flormoralesae, franciscopizarroi, franciscoramirezi, freddyquesadai, freddysalazari, gabrielagutierrezae, garygibsoni, gerardobandoi, gerardosandovali, gladysrojasae, glenriverai, gloriasihezarae, guadaluperodriguezae, guillermopereirai, juanmatai, harryramirezi, hectorsolisi, humbertolopezi, inesolisae, irenecarrilloae, isaacbermudezi, isidrochaconi, isidrovillegasi, ivonnetranae, jairomoyai, javiercontrerasi, javierobandoi, javiersihezari, jesusbrenesi, jesusugaldei, jimmychevezi, johanvargasi, jorgecortesi, jorgehernandezi, josecalvoi, josecortesi, josediazi, josejaramilloi, josemonteroi, joseperezi, joserasi, juanapui, juancarrilloi, juangazoi, juanhernandezi, juanlopezi, juanvictori, juliodiazi, juniorlopezi, keineraragoni, laurahuberae, laurenmoralesae, leninguadamuzi, leonelgarayi, lilliammenae, lisabearssae, luciariosae, luisbrizuelai, luiscanalesi, luiscantillanoi, luisgarciai, luisgaritai, luishernandezi, luislopezi, luisvargasi, manuelarayai, manuelpereirai, manuelriosi, manuelzumbadoi, marcobustosi, marcogonzalezi, marcovenicioi, mariachavarriae mariaguevarae, marialuisariasae, mariamendezae, marianopereirai, mariatorrentesae, sigifredomarini, marisolarroyoae, marisolnavarroae, marvinmendozai, mauriciogurdiani, milenagutierrezae, monicachavarriae, oscarchavesi, osvaldoespinozai, pablotranai, pabloumanai, pablovasquezi, paulaixcamparijae, luzmariaromeroae, petronariosae, randallgarciai, randallmartinezi, raulacevedoi, raulsolorsanoi, wadyobandoi, ricardocaleroi, robertmontanoi, robertoespinozai, robertovargasi, rodrigogamezi, rogerblancoi, rolandoramosi, rolandovegai, ronaldcastroi, ronaldgutierrezi, ronaldmurilloi, ronaldnavarroi, ronaldquirosi, ronaldzunigai, rosibelelizondoae, ruthfrancoae, sergiocascantei, sergioriosi, tiboshartae, vannesabrenesae, minornavarroi, victorbarrantesi, waldymedinai, wilbertharayai, williamcamposi, yeissonchavesi, yilbertalvaradoi, yolandarojasae, hazelcambroneroae, zeneidabolanosae.