To understand the Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) in the Radio Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasmas (RF-ICPs) in hydrogen negative ion sources, the detailed analysis of the EEDFs using numerical simulation and the theoretical approach based on Boltzmann equation has been performed. It is shown that the EEDF of RF-ICPs consists of two parts, one is the low energy part which obeys Maxwellian distribution and the other is high energy part deviated from Maxwellian distribution. These simulation results have been confirmed to be reasonable by the analytical approach. The results suggest that it is possible to enhance the dissociation of molecules and the resultant H-negative ion production by reducing the gas pressure. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
All biological systems need reactive nitrogen, but historically it has been in short supply. [...] the end of the nineteenth century, the main agricultural source was fixation of N2 by symbiotic bacteria in legumes planted for that purpose, combined with careful recycling of the limited amount of nitrogen in manure.
Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molecules and then form growing clusters of one to three sulfuric acid molecules plus one to four oxidized organics. Most of these organic compounds retain 10 carbon atoms, and some of them are remarkably highly oxidized (oxygen-to-carbon ratios up to 1.2). The average degree of oxygenation of the organic compounds decreases while the clusters are growing. Our measurements therefore connect oxidized organics directly, and in detail, with the very first steps of new particle formation and their growth between 1 and 2 nm in a controlled environment. Thus, they confirm that oxidized organics are involved in both the formation and growth of particles under ambient conditions.
The earliest stars to form in the Universe were the first sources of light, heat and metals after the Big Bang. The products of their evolution will have had a profound impact on subsequent generations of stars. Recent studies of primordial star formation have shown that, in the absence of metals (elements heavier than helium), the formation of stars with masses 100 times that of the Sun would have been strongly favoured, and that low-mass stars could not have formed before a minimum level of metal enrichment had been reached. The value of this minimum level is very uncertain, but is likely to be between 10-6 and 10-4 that of the Sun. Here we show that the recent discovery of the most iron-poor star known indicates the presence of dust in extremely low-metallicity gas, and that this dust is crucial for the formation of lower-mass second-generation stars that could survive until today. The dust provides a pathway for cooling the gas that leads to fragmentation of the precursor molecular cloud into smaller clumps, which become the lower-mass stars.
The metrological performance of a virtual flowmeter-based transducer for monitoring helium under cryogenic conditions is assessed. At this aim, an uncertainty model of the transducer, mainly based on a valve model, exploiting finite-element approach, and a virtual flowmeter model, based on the Sereg-Schlumberger method, are presented. The models are validated experimentally on a case study for helium monitoring in cryogenic systems at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The impact of uncertainty sources on the transducer metrological performance is assessed by a sensitivity analysis, based on statistical experiment design and analysis of variance. In this way, the uncertainty sources most influencing metrological performance of the transducer are singled out over the input range as a whole, at varying operating and setting conditions. This analysis turns out to be important for CERN cryogenics operation because the metrological design of the transducer is validated, and its components and working conditions with critical specifications for future improvements are identified. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
The motion of beams in particle accelerators is dominated by a plethora of non-linear effects, which can enhance chaotic motion and limit their performance. The application of advanced non-linear dynamics methods for detecting and correcting these effects and thereby increasing the region of beam stability plays an essential role during the accelerator design phase but also their operation. After describing the nature of non-linear effects and their impact on performance parameters of different particle accelerator categories, the theory of non-linear particle motion is outlined. The recent developments on the methods employed for the analysis of chaotic beam motion are detailed. In particular, the ability of the frequency map analysis method to detect chaotic motion and guide the correction of non-linear effects is demonstrated in particle tracking simulations but also experimental data. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.