Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.
Background: To explain observed differences during SPF determination using either an in vivo or in vitro method, we hypothesized on the presence of ingredients having anti-inflammatory properties. Methodology/Principal Findings: To research our hypothesis, we studied the 21 UV filters both available on the market and authorized by European regulations and subjected these filters to the phorbol-myristate-acetate test using mice. We then catalogued the 13 filters demonstrating a significant anti-inflammatory effect with edema inhibition percentages of more than 70%. The filters are: diethylhexyl butamido triazone (92%), benzophenone-5 and titanium dioxide (90%), benzophenone-3 (83%), octocrylene and isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (82%), PEG-25 PABA and homosalate (80%), octyl triazone and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (78%), octyl dimethyl PABA (75%), bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexylbenzoate (70%). These filters were tested at various concentrations, including their maximum authorized dose. We detected a dose-response relationship. Conclusions/Significance: The anti-inflammatory effect of a sunscreen ingredient may affect the in vivo SPF value. Citation: Couteau C, Chauvet C, Paparis E, Coiffard L (2012) UV Filters, Ingredients with a Recognized Anti-Inflammatory Effect. PLoS ONE 7(12): e46187. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046187
In this work, we evaluate whether in vitro systems are good predictors for in vivo estrogenic activity in fish. We focus on UV filters being used in sunscreens and in UV stabilization of materials. First, we determined the estrogenic activity of 23 UV filters and one UV filter metabolite employing a recombinant yeast carrying the estrogen receptor of rainbow trout (rtER alpha) and made comparisons with yeast carrying the human hER alpha for receptor specificity. Benzophenone-1 (BP1), benzophenone-2 (BP2), 4,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 2,4,4-trihydroxy-benzophenone, and phenylsalicylate showed full dose-response curves with maximal responses of 81-115%, whereas 3-benzylidene camphor (3BC), octylsalicylate, benzylsalicylate, benzophenone-3, and benzophenone-4 displayed lower maximal responses of 15-74%. Whereas the activity of 17 beta-estradiol was lower in the rtER alpha than the hER alpha assay, the activities of UV filters were similar or relatively higher in rtER alpha, indicating different relative binding activities of both ER. Subsequently, we analyzed whether the in vitro estrogenicity of eight UV filters is also displayed in vivo in fathead minnows by the induction potential of vitellogenin after 14 days of aqueous exposure. Of the three active compounds in vivo, 3BC induced vitellogenin at lower concentrations (435 mu g/l) than BP1 (4919 mu g/l) and BP2 (8783 mu g/l). The study shows, for the first time, estrogenic activities of UV filters in fish both in vitro and in vivo. Thus we propose that receptor-based assays should be used for in vitro screening prior to in vivo testing, leading to environmental risk assessments based on combined, complementary, and appropriate species-related assays for hormonal activity.
Topical application of cosmetic products, containing ultraviolet filters (UV filters) are recommended as a protection against sunburns and in order to reduce the risk of skin cancer. However, some UV filters can be absorbed through skin and by consuming contaminated food. Among the chemical UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (4-MBC) and 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (OMC) are absorbed through the skin to the greatest extent. So far, these lipophilic compounds were demonstrated to influence the gonadal and thyroid hormone function, but their effect on central nervous system cells has not been investigated, yet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of some UV filters on cell viability and caspase-3 activity in SH-SY5Y cells. It has been found that benzophenone-2 (BP-2), BP-3, 4-methylbenzophenone (4-MBP) and OMC present in the culture medium for 72 h in high concentration (10 and 10 M) and 4-MBC only 10 M produced a significant cytotoxic effect, as determined both by the MTT reduction test and LDH release assay. In contrast to necrotic changes, all tested UV filters increased caspase-3 activity in much lower concentrations (from 10 to 10 M). Proapoptotic properties of the test compounds were positively verified by Hoechst staining. The obtained results indicated that UV filters adversely affected the viability of nerve cells, most likely by enhancing the process of apoptosis. The most potent effect was exerted by BP-3 and 4-MBC and at concentrations that may be reached . Since human exposure to UV filters is significant these compound should be taken into consideration as one of the possible factors involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a multifunctional hair care formulation—Hair BB Cream—containing botanical extracts of Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinifera, and Euterpe orleacea, vitamins, amino acids, UV filters, and silicones for hair treatment and prevention of UV damages. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the botanical extracts was evaluated using the DPPH and chemiluminescence methods. A tensile test, combability, shine, and image analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the formulation. To evaluate protection against UV damage, the hair strands were submitted to UV radiation without and with the application of the Hair BB Cream. The results showed that the application of the Hair BB Cream promoted a reduction in combability values and an increase in break stress and gloss values. After exposure to UV radiation, the hair treated with the BB Cream formulation showed no difference in the mechanical properties test, indicating protection against UV damage. In conclusion, the multifunctional formulation showed several benefits of single product acting in the prevention of UV damage and the treatment of hair damage. Thus, the Hair BB Cream proposed can be suggested as an effective multifunctional hair care product. The results showed that the application of the Hair BB Cream promoted a reduction in combability values when compared to the tress control and the vehicle formulation. After exposure to UV radiation, the hair treated with the BB Cream formulation showed no difference in the combability test, indicating protection against UV damage. In conclusion, the multifunctional formulation showed several benefits of a single product acting in the prevention of UV damage and the treatment of hair damaged. Thus, the Hair BB Cream proposed can be suggested as an effective multifunctional hair care product.
Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are used in personal care products for the protection of human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment in the production and consumption processes, little is known about their ecotoxicology effects. The acute toxicity and potential ecological risk of UV filters benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and benzophenone-4 (BP-4) on Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, and Brachydanio rerio were analyzed in the present study. The EC50 values (96 h) of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris were 2.98 and 201.00 mg/L, respectively. The 48 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on D. magna were 1.09 and 47.47 mg/L, respectively. The 96 h-LC50 of BP-3 and BP-4 on B. rerio were 3.89 and 633.00 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of a mixture of BP-3 and BP-4 on C. vulgaris, D. magna, and B. rerio all showed antagonistic effects. The induced predicted no-effect concentrations of BP-3 and BP-4 by the assessment factor method were 1.80 x 10(-3) and 0.47 mg/L, respectively, by assessment factor (AF) method, which were both lower than the concentrations detected in the environment at present, verifying that BP-3 and BP-4 remain low-risk chemicals to the aquatic ecosystem.
Tryptophan-derived UV filters are predominantly found in the lenses of primates and humans. While protective against UV radiation, aging alters the complement and spatial distributions of human lens UV filters, and a role for UV filters has been suggested in age-related cataract formation. To establish how the spatial distributions of UV filters change in normal human lens aging, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) was utilised to map the locations and relative abundance of multiple UV filters simultaneously. Frozen human lenses were cryosectioned axially, and the 20 μm-thick sections coated with MALDI matrix via robotic sprayer and analysed using negative ion mode MALDI-Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance MS. While signal for many UV filters was detected throughout the lenses, signal intensity was generally highest in the central (embryonic) nucleus and decreased uniformly in outer (foetal, juvenile, adult) nuclear and cortical regions, and many UV filter signals declined with age. In contrast, two antioxidant-conjugated UV filters (Cys-3-OHKG and GSH-3-OHKG) were restricted to the lens nucleus and their relative signal increased with increasing lens age. The enhanced spatial resolution of MALDI-IMS over manual trephine dissection techniques and its multiplex capability allowed the spatial relationships between lens UV filters to be established and explored in relation to aging. Together these results confirmed that the complement of UV filters in each lens is dynamic and undergoes significant age-related changes. In the future, this information could be used to compare with other lens biomolecule changes to better understand the lens aging process and age-related cataract formation.
Ultraviolet absorbing chemicals (UV filters) are widely used in personal care products for protecting human skin and hair from damage by UV radiation. Although these substances are released into the environment during production and consumption processes, little is known about their genotoxicity effects. Our previous studies have shown that benzophenone-type UV filters exhibited acute toxicity on three species of aquatic organisms. Mutagenesis by benzophenone (BP) and benzophenone-1(BP-1) was tested in the present study by the Salmonella typhimurium/reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). All the positive reverse mutations occurred in the absence of the S9 liver extract system for both chemicals. From BP, positive mutation effects on the TA102 strain at doses of 0.05 g/plate and 0.5 g/plate were detected. From BP-1, positive mutation effects on the TA97 strain at doses of 0.05 g/plate and 0.5 g/plate, and on the TA100 strain at a dose of 0.5 g/plate, were detected. A mixture of BP and BP-1 exhibited mutagenicity on the TA97 and TA100 strains. For the TA97 strain, the positive mutation results were detected at 10% and 50% of the mixture. For the TA100 strain, the results were detected when the mixture was at 5% and 10%. In the mixture at 5%, the concentrations of BP and BP-1 were 3.5 g/plate and 14 g/plate, respectively. In the 10% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 7 g/plate and 28 g/plate, respectively. In the 50% mixture, the doses of BP and BP-1 were 35 g/plate and 140 g/plate, respectively. The mixture test results suggested that there was antagonism in mutagenicity between BP and BP-1.
Photoprotection has become integral in the prevention of keratinocyte cancer and photoaging. Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters such as oxybenzone and octinoxate have become controversial due to their potential impact on the environmental and their potential human health risks. As such, inorganic UV filters, zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO ) have become paramount in discussions about photoprotection. ZnO and TiO are used in sunscreens as nanoparticles, which denotes a size <100 nm. The smaller size of these mineral particles increases their cosmetic acceptability by users as they are much less visible after application. ZnO has a broad UVA-UVB absorption curve, while TiO provides better UVB protection. Overall, the human health risks with inorganic filters are extremely low given a lack of percutaneous absorption; however, there is potential risk when exposed via inhalation, prompting recommendations against spray sunscreen products with nanoparticles. At this time, the known risk to the environment is low though the risk stratification may evolve with increasing usage of these filters and higher environmental concentrations. The continued practice of photoprotection is critical. The public should be counseled to seek shade, use photoprotective clothing including hats and glasses in addition to sunscreens on sun-exposed skin. For those concerned about emerging evidence of environmental impact of organic UV filters, based on current evidence, ZnO and TiO -containing sunscreens are safe alternatives.