The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a research model that investigates the effects of user experience with information technology (IT) on user satisfaction with and continual usage intention of the technology. The research model uses the concept of cognitive absorption (CA) to conceptualize the optimal holistic experience that users feel when using IT. A set of hypotheses are proposed regarding the direct and indirect effects of CA on user satisfaction through the perceived utilitarian and hedonic performance and expectation disconfirmation of IT. An online survey was conducted to test the model and its associated hypotheses. The results provided support for the hypothesized effects of CA and indicated its importance for the formation of post-adoption satisfaction and continuance intention with IT.
Collaborative tagging describes the process by which many users add metadata in the form of keywords to shared content. Recently, collaborative tagging has grown in popularity on the web, on sites that allow users to tag bookmarks, photographs and other content. In this paper we analyze the structure of collaborative tagging systems as well as their dynamic aspects. Specifically, we discovered regularities in user activity, tag frequencies, kinds of tags used, bursts of popularity in bookmarking and a remarkable stability in the relative proportions of tags within a given URL. We also present a dynamic model of collaborative tagging that predicts these stable patterns and relates them to imitation and shared knowledge.
The adoption of e-Customs platforms to simultaneously ensure regulatory compliance and to facilitate trade is a major strategic issue for governments and customs administrations worldwide. It ensures a more cost-efficient usage of resources while preserving a smooth flow of goods across international borders. Hence, customs administrations are challenged to favor the introduction of IT systems that may enhance the ability to improve information sharing with the business sector, as well as with other governmental agencies. This is often not a straightforward process. As many experts point out, e-Government development projects fail commonly due to the lack of thorough understanding of administration requirements as well as barriers for implementation. Hence, the purpose of this study is to understand what factors enable or hinder the exploitation of e-Customs platforms. By means of a Systematic Literature Review (SLR), a theoretical framework is developed to identify drivers and barriers for usage of e-Government/e-Customs platforms. Thereby, a survey instrument was developed and data was collected in occasion of a World Customs Organization (WCO) Annual Council meeting, which was joined by around 400 customs delegates and officers from 178 WCO member administrations. A total of 94 questionnaires have been collected and analyzed, which gives an approximate response rate of 23% (46% considering only the 178 member administrations). The analysis of data has been performed by a combination of multivariate techniques and ANOVA. Results show that factors like cost-savings and ease of use significantly influence the usage of e-Customs platforms. On the contrary, cost-efficiency and usefulness of e-Customs platforms have no significant impacts. From the perspective of barriers preventing adoption, this paper identifies two main factors: 1) technical constraints and costs and 2) quality and trust. Both these factors significantly influence adoption of information sharing, in the context of business-customs communication.
Government agencies are increasingly using social media to connect with those they serve. These connections have the potential to extend government services, solicit new ideas, and improve decision-making and problem-solving. However, interacting via social media introduces new challenges related to privacy, security, data management, accessibility, social inclusion, governance, and other information policy issues. The rapid adoption of social media by the population and government agencies has outpaced the regulatory framework related to information, although the guiding principles behind many regulations are still relevant. This paper examines the existing regulatory framework and the ways in which it applies to social media use by the U.S. federal government, highlighting opportunities and challenges agencies face in implementing them, as well as possible approaches for addressing these challenges. ► Social media usage by government raises significant new policy challenges, including access, governance, privacy, security, and archiving. ► Many policies about previous technologies relate to government social media usage. ► Researchers can investigate a wide range of questions to help shape more inclusion policies related to social media.
Recent eHealth developments have elevated the importance of assessing the extent to which technology has empowered patients and improved health, particularly among the most vulnerable populations. With noted disparities across racial and social groups in chronic health outcomes, such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes, it is essential that researchers examine any differences in the implementation, uptake, and impact of eHealth strategies across groups that bear a disproportionate burden of disease. The goal was to examine eHealth use by sociodemographic factors, such as race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex. We drew data from National Cancer Institute's 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) (N=3959) which is publicly available online. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to assess sociodemographic predictors of eHealth use among adult Internet users (N=2358) across 3 health communication domains (health care, health information-seeking, and user-generated content/sharing). Among online adults, we saw no evidence of a digital use divide by race/ethnicity. However, there were significant differences in use by SES, particularly for health care and health information-seeking items. Patients with lower levels of education had significantly lower odds of going online to look for a health care provider (high school or less: OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33-0.76) using email or the Internet to communicate with a doctor (high school or less: OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.72), tracking their personal health information online (high school or less: OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.84), using a website to help track diet, weight, and physical activity (high school or less: OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.98; some college: OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93), or downloading health information to a mobile device (some college: OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.89). Being female was a consistent predictor of eHealth use across health care and user-generated content/sharing domains, whereas age was primarily influential for health information-seeking. This study illustrates that lower SES, older, and male online US adults were less likely to engage in a number of eHealth activities compared to their counterparts. Future studies should assess issues of health literacy and eHealth literacy and their influence on eHealth engagement across social groups. Clinical care and public health communication efforts attempting to leverage Web 2.0 and 3.0 platforms should acknowledge differential eHealth usage to better address communication inequalities and persistent disparities in health.
Background: Patients are increasingly rating their family physicians on the Internet in the same way as they might rate a hotel on TripAdvisor or a seller on eBay, despite physicians' concerns about this process. Objective: This study aims to examine the usage of NHS Choices, a government website that encourages patients to rate the quality of family practices in England, and associations between web-based patient ratings and conventional measures of patient experience and clinical quality in primary care. Methods: We obtained all (16,952) ratings of family practices posted on NHS Choices between October 2009 and December 2010. We examined associations between patient ratings and family practice and population characteristics. Associations between ratings and survey measures of patient experience and clinical outcomes were examined. Results: 61% of the 8089 family practices in England were rated, and 69% of ratings would recommend their family practice. Practices serving younger, less deprived, and more densely populated areas were more likely to be rated. There were moderate associations with survey measures of patient experience (Spearman. 0.37-0.48, P<.001 for all 5 variables), but only weak associations with measures of clinical process and outcome (Spearman. less than +/- 0.18, P<.001 for 6 of 7 variables). Conclusion: The frequency of patients rating their family physicians on the Internet is variable in England, but the ratings are generally positive and are moderately associated with other measures of patient experience and weakly associated with clinical quality. Although potentially flawed, patient ratings on the Internet may provide an opportunity for organizational learning and, as it becomes more common, another lens to look at the quality of primary care. (J Med Internet Res 2012;14(5):e146) doi: 10.2196/jmir.2280
Background: In electronic health (eHealth) evaluations, there is increasing attention for studying the actual usage of a technology in relation to the outcomes found, often by studying the adherence to the technology. On the basis of the definition of adherence, we suggest that the following three elements are necessary to determine adherence to eHealth technology: (1) the ability to measure the usage behavior of individuals; (2) an operationalization of intended use; and (3) an empirical, theoretical, or rational justification of the intended use. However, to date, little is known on how to operationalize the intended usage of and the adherence to different types of eHealth technology. Objective: The study aimed to improve eHealth evaluations by gaining insight into when, how, and by whom the concept of adherence has been used in previous eHealth evaluations and finding a concise way to operationalize adherence to and intended use of different eHealth technologies. Methods: A systematic review of eHealth evaluations was conducted to gain insight into how the use of the technology was measured, how adherence to different types of technologies was operationalized, and if and how the intended use of the technology was justified. Differences in variables between the use of the technology and the operationalization of adherence were calculated using a chi-square test of independence. Results: In total, 62 studies were included in this review. In 34 studies, adherence was operationalized as “the more use, the better,” whereas 28 studies described a threshold for intended use of the technology as well. Out of these 28, only 6 reported a justification for the intended use. The proportion of evaluations of mental health technologies reporting a justified operationalization of intended use is lagging behind compared with evaluations of lifestyle and chronic care technologies. The results indicated that a justification of intended use does not require extra measurements to determine adherence to the technology. Conclusions: The results of this review showed that to date, justifications for intended use are often missing in evaluations of adherence. Evidently, it is not always possible to estimate the intended use of a technology. However, such measures do not meet the definition of adherence and should therefore be referred to as the actual usage of the technology. Therefore, it can be concluded that adherence to eHealth technology is an underdeveloped and often improperly used concept in the existing body of literature. When defining the intended use of a technology and selecting valid measures for adherence, the goal or the assumed working mechanisms should be leading. Adherence can then be standardized, which will improve the comparison of adherence rates to different technologies with the same goal and will provide insight into how adherence to different elements contributed to the outcomes.
For many people who use mobile apps, the primary motivations are entertainment, news, gaming, social connections, or productivity. For those experiencing health problems, particularly those with chronic conditions such as psychiatric disorders, the stakes are much higher. The digital tools that they select may be the difference between improvement and decompensation or even life and death. Although there has been a wide expansion of mental health apps with promise as well as hype, the current means of researching, evaluating, and deploying effective tools have been problematic. As a means of gaining a perspective that moves beyond usability testing, surveys, and app ratings, the primary objective of this patient perspective is to question the killer app and condition-specific mentality of current mental health app development. We do this by reviewing the current mobile mental health app literature, identifying ways in which psychiatric patients use apps in their lives, and then exploring how these issues are experienced by a software engineer who has struggled with her bipolar disorder for many years. Her lived experience combined with a technology perspective offers potential avenues for using technology productively in psychiatric treatment. We believe that this responds to JMIR Publications' call for patient perspective papers and provides encouragement for patients to share their views on mental health and technology.
The integration of social media and e-commerce leads to the emergence of social commerce. Although previous research has examined social commerce user behaviour from multiple perspectives, it has focused on the effect of instrumental beliefs, such as perceived value, and has seldom examined the effect of emotional factors, such as sense of community on user behaviour. The purpose of this research is to draw on the stimulus-organism-response (SOR) model to examine the effect of sense of community on users' social commerce usage intention. The results indicate that both social support and service quality (stimulus) affect the sense of community (organism), which in turn affects users' sharing and participation intention (response). The results imply that service providers need to develop the user's sense of community in order to facilitate his or her social commerce usage intention.
► The authors propose to apply usage data from social bookmarking services (BibSonomy, CiteULike and Connotea) to evaluate journal readership. ► Due to ongoing problems with local and the lack of global download data, usage statistics based on bookmarks can be an alternative and publisher independent way to analyze reader perception. ► Data acquisition is described for 168,109 scientific articles published in 45 physics journals between 2004 and 2008. ► Journal indicators based on bookmarking data are introduced. Web 2.0 technologies are finding their way into academics: specialized social bookmarking services allow researchers to store and share scientific literature online. By bookmarking and tagging articles, academic prosumers generate new information about resources, i.e. usage statistics and content description of scientific journals. Given the lack of global download statistics, the authors propose the application of social bookmarking data to journal evaluation. For a set of 45 physics journals all 13,608 bookmarks from CiteULike, Connotea and BibSonomy to documents published between 2004 and 2008 were analyzed. This article explores bookmarking data in STM and examines in how far it can be used to describe the perception of periodicals by the readership. Four basic indicators are defined, which analyze different aspects of usage: Usage Ratio, Usage Diffusion, Article Usage Intensity and Journal Usage Intensity. Tags are analyzed to describe a reader-specific view on journal content.