A limited diversity of character states for reproductive traits and a robust phylogeny make scleractinian corals an ideal model organism with which to explore the evolution of life-history traits. Here, we explore systematic and biogeographical patterns in the reproductive biology of the Scleractinia within the context of a new molecular phylogeny and using reproductive traits from nearly 400 species. Our analyses confirm that coral sexuality is highly conserved, and mode of larval development is relatively plastic. An overabundance of species with autotrophic larvae in the eastern Pacific and Atlantic is most likely the result of increased capacity for long-distance dispersal conferred by vertical transmission of symbiotic zooxanthellae. Spawning records from diverse biogeographical regions indicate that multispecies spawning occurs in all speciose coral assemblages. A new quantitative index of spawning synchrony shows peaks at mid-tropical latitudes in the Indo-Pacific, influenced in part by two spawning seasons in many species on equatorial reefs.
Aim Reproductive traits are important mediators of establishment and spread of introduced species, both directly and through interactions with other life-history traits and extrinsic factors. We identify features of the reproductive biology of Australian acacias associated with invasiveness. Location Global. Methods We reviewed the pollination biology, seed biology and alternative modes of reproduction of Australian acacias using primary literature, online searches and unpublished data. We used comparative analyses incorporating an Acacia phylogeny to test for associations between invasiveness and eight reproductive traits in a group of introduced and invasive (23) and non-invasive (129) species. We also explore the distribution of groups of trait 'syndromes' between invasive and non-invasive species. Results Reproductive trait data were only available for 126 of 152 introduced species in our data set, representing 23/23 invasive and 103/129 non-invasive species. These data suggest that invasives reach reproductive maturity earlier (10/13 within 2 years vs. 7/26 for non-invasives) and are more commonly able to resprout (11/21 vs. 13/54), although only time to reproductive maturity was significant when phylogenetic relationships were controlled for. Our qualitative survey of the literature suggests that invasive species in general tend to have generalist pollination systems, prolific seed production, efficient seed dispersal and the accumulation of large and persistent seed banks that often have fire-, heat- or disturbance-triggered germination cues. Conclusions Invasive species respond quicker to disturbance than non-invasive taxa. Traits found to be significant in our study require more in-depth analysis involving data for a broader array of species given how little is known of the reproductive biology of so many taxa in this species-rich genus. Sets of reproductive traits characteristic of invasive species and a general ability to reproduce effectively in new locations are widespread in Australian acacias. Unless there is substantial evidence to the contrary, care should be taken with all introductions.
To clarify the life history of Clintonia udensis , we investigated its reproductive systems and spatio‐temporal population structure. Pollination experiments and the observation of floral visitors revealed that C. udensis was compatible with both self‐ and outcross‐pollen, and it potentially produces seeds by insect‐mediated outcrossing in natural conditions. In addition, propagation by clonal reproduction from rhizomes was evident. In this study, it was clarified that C. udensis potentially propagates by sexual and asexual reproduction and maintains its population through a stable frequency of flowering. The differences in the dependence on each reproduction mode could be one of the contributing factors for creating a variety of population sizes and distribution patterns of ramets in populations. To clarify the life‐history of Clintonia udensis , we investigated its reproductive systems and spatio‐temporal population structure. In this study, it was clarified that C. udensis potentially propagates by sexual and asexual reproduction and maintains its population through a stable frequency of flowering. The differences in the dependence on each reproduction mode could be one of the contributing factors for creating a variety of population sizes and distribution patterns of ramets in populations.
Among calyptraeid gastropods, males become females as they get older, and egg capsules containing developing embryos are maintained beneath the mother's shell until the encapsulated embryos hatch. Crepipatella dilatata is an interesting biological model considering that is an estuarine species and thus periodically exposed to elevated environment-physiological pressures. Presently, there is not much information about the reproductive biology and brooding parameters of this gastropod. This paper describes field and laboratory observations monitoring sex changes, brooding frequencies, sizes of brooding females, egg mass characteristics, and embryonic hatching conditions. Our findings indicate that C. dilatata is a direct-developing protandric hermaphrodite, changing from male to female when individuals were between 18 and 20 mm in shell length. At our study site in Quempillén estuary, females were found to be brooding almost continuously throughout the year, having an average maximum of 85% of simultaneous brooding, with a short rest from April through June. No relationship was found between the number of capsules per egg mass and the size of the brooding female. However, capsule size and the number of embryos and nurse eggs were strongly related to female size. The offspring hatched with an average shell length > 1 mm. About 25% of the hatched capsules were found to contain both metamorphosed (juveniles) and non-metamorphosed (veliger) individuals. The sizes of the latter were < 1000 μm. The length of hatching juveniles was inversely related to the number of individuals per capsule, which seems related to differences in the availability of nurse eggs per embryo. Although fecundity per reproductive event of this species is relatively low (maximum approx. 800 offspring per egg mass) compared with those of calyptraeid species showing mixed development, the overall reproductive potential of C. dilatata seems to be high considering that females can reproduce up to 5 times per year, protecting their encapsulated embryos from physical stresses until well-developed juveniles are released into the population, avoiding a dangerous pelagic period prior to metamorphosis.
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a devastating invasive pest of small and stone fruits in the Americas and Europe. To better understand the population dynamics of D. suzukii, we reviewed recent work on juvenile development, adult reproduction, and seasonal variation in life history parameters including the abiotic/biotic factors that influence these processes. Juvenile development is optimal at moderately warm temperatures, and larvae exhibit some immunity to parasitism. Adults use visual cues and substrate-borne vibrations for courtship and exhibit a bimodal locomotor activity pattern (except mated females). Under 20–27 °C and various conditions, development from egg to adult can take 10–17 days, females first lay eggs within 1–8 days and their lifetime fecundity varies from 400. Oviposition is consistently high in raspberry hosts and fruits with lower penetration force, and the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts can lower fertility. Drosophila suzukii exhibit seasonal variation with a darker winter morph that is more cold tolerant. Also, D. suzukii likely undergo reproductive diapause in the fall, with colder temperatures and shorter day lengths influencing reproduction. To develop viable IPM programs for D. suzukii, knowledge of abiotic and biotic conditions that impact D. suzukii life history parameters and population dynamics is critical, and gaps in the current knowledge are discussed.
Studies on reproduction of the dragonfishes, Bathydraconidae, are scarce, and within this family, the reproductive biology of Parachaenichthys charcoti was poorly understood. Herein we present a histologic analysis of P. charcoti ovaries together with data on reproductive effort using fish collected with trammel nets in austral summer at Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands (SSI), and compare this information with that reported for the South Georgia congener Parachaenichthys georgianus. In gravid females of P. charcoti, GSI of 16–31%, mature oocytes of 1.8–3.9 mm and total fecundity (TF) of 9025–18,937 oocytes/individual (X ± SD = 12,617 ± 4019, n = 7) were recorded. The histology of the ovaries confirmed the common characteristics of the Notothenioidei observed macroscopically, i.e., two distinct batches of oocytes, one in the previtellogenic stage (primary growing or cortical alveoli stages) and the other in vitellogenesis and likely to be released in the current season. A longer incubation period of P. charcoti compared with P. georgianus is associated to the colder waters at the SSI. Based on our sampling and reproductive effort data, together with the reported nesting behavior for P. charcoti, it is assumed that this species spawns in nearshore, sheltered waters in summer, presumably from late December to February. Spawning periods of both congeners differ from those reported for other notothenioids in the same Seasonal Pack-ice Zone, suggesting divergence in some aspects of the life strategies in the genus Parachaenichthys. Likewise, although there are no substantial differences between P. charcoti and other notothenioids regarding gonadal development, the genus Parachaenichthys shows distinct features in its reproductive strategies (e.g., higher TF) compared with other bathydraconid species.
A review of the reproductive biology of fleshy-fruited species of sensu stricto was conducted. Among Cactaceae, is the most diverse and widely distributed genus in the Americas. The genus is strongly associated with bee pollination and coevolution with at least two bee genera is suggested. Fruits and vegetative parts, such as spiny cladodes, are closely linked with seed dispersal and highly efficient vegetative dissemination by animals. Vegetative multiplication appears to be more efficient than sexual reproduction for plant recruitment. Both sexual reproduction and plant multiplication seem to have contributed to the ecological and evolutionary success of the genus, but empirical evidence is lacking.
The seasonal developmental rhythm, floral and fruit morphology, anthesis, and fructification of Asarum sieboldii were studied in a natural plant community in the southern part of the Russian Far East. The flower structure was investigated in ditails. It was found that the flower does not have a gynostemium. The flowers are protogynous. At the first anthesis stage, the anthers are closed and cross-pollination may be realized by ants (Hymenoptera) or flies (Dolichopodidae, Diptera). At the second stage of anthesis, there is direct contact of anthers with the pistil stigma and self-pollination occurs. The perianth is involved in the formation of fruit. The fruit is a six-locular, fleshy, half-inferior capsule. Asarum sieboldii has a high productivity of fruits and seeds. The fruit set is 89% after self-pollination. Viable seeds per fruit is 29 ± 2, the seed set is 69 ± 5%. The agents of seed dissemination are ants: Leptothorax acervorum and Myrmica ruginodis (Formicidae, Hymenoptera).
Genlisea violacea is a Brazilian endemic carnivorous plant species distributed in the cerrado biome, mainly in humid environments, on sandy and oligotrophic soil or wet rocks. Studies on reproductive biology or pollination in the Lentibulariaceae are notably scarce; regarding the genus Genlisea , the current study is the first to show systematic and standardised research on reproductive biology from field studies to describe the foraging of visiting insects and determine the effective pollinators of Genlisea . We studied two populations of G. violacea through the observation of flower visitors for 4 months of the rainy and dry seasons. Stigmatic receptivity, pollen viability, and breeding system were evaluated together with histochemistry and morphological analyses of flowers. The flowers showed stigmatic receptivity of 100% in open buds and mature flowers, reducing to 80% for senescent flowers. Nearly 80% of pollen grains are viable, decreasing to 40–45% after 48 h. Nectar is produced by glandular trichomes inside the spur. Two bee species are effective pollinators: one of the genus Lasioglossum (subgenus Dialictus : Halictidae) and the other of the genus Ceratina (subgenus Ceratinula : family Apidae). Moreover, bee‐like flies of the Syrphidae family may also be additional pollinators. Genlisea violacea is an allogamous and self‐compatible species. The differences in flower‐visiting fauna for both populations can be attributed to factors such as climate, anthropogenic effect, seasonal factors related to insects and plants, as well as the morphological variation of flowers in both populations.