For the first time, an efficient and sensitive analytical method based on liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of four paraben-type preservatives and three benzophenone-type ultraviolet light filters in both plant (Sargassum fusiforme, porphyra, kelp) and animal (hairtail, yellow croaker, shrimp) seafood. The samples were extracted in methanol by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), and the extracts were then cleaned up by mixed-mode cationic exchange (MCX) solid-phase extraction cartridges. Both isotope-labeled internal standards and matrix-matched calibration standards were used to alleviate and correct for the matrix effects, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 10.0 mu g kg(-1) for all target compounds. The average recoveries were in the range of 80.6-107.8% at three spiked concentration levels (10, 50 and 100 mu g kg(-1)) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8.5%. The results suggest that very limited contamination of these seven emerging contaminants, mainly associated with PCPs, occurred in these common seafoods. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Presence of antineoplastic compounds in the marine environment could cause adverse effects even at very low concentrations. The bulk of the produced literature at present has focused on the detection of these compounds in wastewater samples, while only a few papers tackled the more complex solid samples and until now, to the best of our knowledge, none has investigated marine organisms. This work presents the development, optimisation and application of an analytical method for the extraction and determination of the four antineoplastic compounds; cyclophosphamide, vincristine, vinblastine and tamoxifen, from fish tissues by microwave assisted extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Under optimal conditions, recoveries ranged between 60% and 120%, while intra- and inter-day precision were in the 5.0–19.4% and 12.0–20.4% ranges, respectively. Method detection and quantification limits were in the ranges 0.8–1.3 and 2.7-4.3 ng·g dry weight for tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide, and 46.3–536 and 154-1787 ng·g dry weight for vinblastine and vincristine, respectively. The developed analytical method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of target compounds from muscle and liver tissues belonging to three different fish species. The results did not highlight any contamination by target antineoplastic molecules in the investigated fish tissues.
This study aims at developing a method for the determination of 9 synthetic musk compounds in seafood products by combining the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method and determination by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–EI–MS). Method detection limits (MDL) ranging between 0.001 and 1.94 ng g were obtained. The linearity is higher than 0.9899 in the range MDL – 100 ng g with precision below 18% and recoveries between 46% and 120% were obtained. The method was applied to quantify musk compounds in seafood products from the European southwest coast (oysters, mussels, salmon organs, glass eels). Galaxolide and Tonalide exhibited the highest concentration levels ranging between MDL – 96.4 ng g and MDL – 6.85 ng g , respectively. Contamination levels observed for the two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) are significantly lower ranging between MDL – 0.6 ng g and MDL – 0.09 ng g , respectively. Analysis of different organs of salmons showed higher concentrations in liver and gonad than in muscle tissues.
Occurrences of pharmaceuticals are evident in aquatic organisms. A reproducible gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method using selected ion monitoring (SIM) has been used to determine the anti-histamine diphenhydramine (DPH), anti-anxiety diazepam (DZP), anti-seizure carbamazepine (CZP) drugs and their metabolites in grocery stores fish that were homogenized, extracted, pre-concentrated, cleaned up, and examined. Identifications of the compounds in extracts were obtained by comparing similar mass spectral features and retention properties with standards. Among nine frequently detected drugs, only DPH and DZP were observed and ranged from 0.61 to 6.21 and 1.99 to 16.57 ng/g, respectively, in fourteen fish species. These concentration values were lower than the environmental fish. Mean spike recoveries of analytes exceeded 75% with relative standard deviations (RSD) < 10%. The statistically-derived method detection limits (MDLs) for nine compounds ranged from 0.13 to 5.56 ng/g. Average surrogate recoveries were 80–85% with 4–9% RSD.
Surface defects such as mechanical damage, black lesion, latex stains and shriveling of mango fruit are very common and responsible for lowering of market prices as well as postharvest losses. Current research, thus, focused on the study of reflected ultraviolet imaging (UV) technique, its potential of detecting defected mangoes and to develop a computer vision system which could find the reflected area on injured or defected mango’s surface. The visual visualization of the bruised areas was noticed different when viewed under 15 W fluorescent UV tube (100–400 nm) light by UV camera. Hidden defects on fruit’s surface detected just after the image acquisition by UV camera and brightness enhancement. Defected or injured surface of mangoes recognized easily by reflected UV imaging at 400 nm band-pass filter. The seriousness of injuries which were not detected by RGB color camera, detected by reflected UV imaging technique exactly.
The effects of various light compositions on the levels of anthocyanin, rutin and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts were evaluated. Dark-grown 6-day-old buckwheat sprouts were irradiated with different sources of visible and ultraviolet (UV) light. Particularly, we examined the effect of UV-B at wavelengths of 260–320 nm, 280–320 nm, and 300–320 nm on the production of flavonoid compounds, using multiple fluorescent lights and cylinders that filter out certain portions of the UV-B. The results showed that irradiation with UV-B > 300 nm increased the levels of anthocyanin and rutin, as well as the DPPH radical scavenging activity. When sprouts were irradiated with UV-B light at wavelengths of 260–300 nm, yellowing or withering occurred within 24 h of irradiation, indicating that wavelengths in this range are detrimental to the growth of buckwheat sprouts.
A simple and effective method for the rapid determination of five salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish is described. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) prior to their determination by on-line silylation gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). The parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized using a Box–Behnken design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved dispersing 0.5 g of freeze-dried powdered fish with 1.0 g of Florisil using a mortar and pestle. This blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge containing 1.0 g of octadecyl bonded silica (C18), as the clean-up co-sorbent. The target analytes were then eluted with 7 mL of acetonitrile. The extract was derivatized on-line in the GC injection-port by reaction with a trimethylsilylating (TMS) reagent. The TMS-derivatives were then identified and quantitated by GC–MS/MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were less than 0.1 ng/g.
Appropriate exposure to sun is beneficial to humans and living organisms. However, excessive exposure to ultraviolet ( UV ) radiation can lead to photoageing, severe health risks and even death. Nowadays, the health risks of excess UV exposure have greatly increased due to the significant changes of global climate and human lifestyle as well as the thinning of the stratospheric ozone (a natural and effective filter for solar UV radiation). Therefore, protecting against UV radiation‐induced damage is a serious challenge. Research needs to address the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the UV ‐induced damages and also explore the potential use of natural substances to combat the harm caused by UV radiation. Plant‐based substances have been found to exert significant protective effects against UV radiation. This review explores the most recent hypothesis of natural bioactive compounds (such as flavones, peptides, polysaccharides and terpenoids) as potential protective agents against UV radiation. The similarities and differences in UV photoprotective mechanisms among these different classes of compounds are also discussed. Protective effect of food‐based bioactive compounds against ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
Pork forelegs were used for manufacturing fresh sausages, treated with different natural antioxidants (rosemary, ascorbic acid and black pepper), packaged in 80% O + 20% CO atmosphere and displayed at 2 ± 1 °C under different lightings (darkness, standard fluorescent, low-UV colour-balanced lamp and standard fluorescent plus a UV-filter). Two packs for each treatment were opened every 4 days for subsequent analysis of colour CIE , , , TBARS, microbial psychrotrophic aerobes and sensory discolouration and off-odour. Lighting with standard fluorescent was highly deleterious for sausage display life, which fell from 12 to 8 days due mainly to early discolouration. Inserting a UV-filter extended display life to 12 days, while the use of a low-UV lamp was not effective in protecting from discolouration. Addition of rosemary plus ascorbic acid, in the absence of black pepper, retarded discolouration only in sausages illuminated with the UV-filter, reaching a display life of 16 days, equal to that of sausages maintained in the dark.