Abstract The ability to control cell proliferation/differentiation, using material surface, is a main goal in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attachment, proliferation and differentiation to the osteoblastic phenotype of human marrow stromal cells (MSC) when seeded on poly- ε -caprolactone (PCL) thin films before and after irradiation with 10 keV He+ . The polymeric surface was characterized as surface chemical structure and composition, roughness and morphology on the micro- and nano-scale, wettability and surface free energy parameters. MSC were obtained from patients undergoing routine hip replacement surgery, expanded in vitro and cultured on untreated PCL and He+ irradiated PCL films for up to 4–5 weeks in osteogenic medium. He+ -irradiation led to slight smoothening of the surface and different nanoscale surface chemical structure, while surface free energy resulted unchanged in comparison to untreated PCL. The results from biological testing demonstrated that early attachment and further proliferation, as well as osteoblastic markers, were higher for MSC on He+ -irradiated PCL. In conclusion, the change of PCL surface properties induced by ion beam irradiation is confirmed to enhance the adhesion of MSC and support their differentiation.
Abstract Cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds have received considerable interest for tissue engineering applications. In this study, ECM scaffolds derived from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), chondrocyte, and fibroblast were prepared by culturing cells in a selectively removable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) template. These three types of ECM scaffolds were used for in vitro cultures of MSC and fibroblasts to examine their potential as scaffolds for cartilage and skin tissue engineering. The MSC were cultured in MSC- and chondrocyte-derived ECM scaffolds. The ECM scaffolds supported cell adhesion, promoted both cell proliferation and the production of ECM and demonstrated a stronger stimulatory effect on the chondrogenesis of MSC compared with a conventional pellet culture method. Histological and immunohistochemical staining indicated that cartilage-like tissues were regenerated after the MSC were cultured in ECM scaffolds. Fibroblasts were cultured in the fibroblast-derived ECM scaffolds. Fibroblasts proliferated and produced ECM to fill the pores and spaces in the scaffold. After 2 weeks of culture, a uniform multilayered tissue was generated with homogenously distributed fibroblasts. Cell-derived ECM scaffolds have been demonstrated to facilitate tissue regeneration and will be a useful tool for tissue engineering.
Abstract This study was aimed to investigate whether the activation of poly-( ε -caprolactone) (PCL) surface by low-energy irradiation and/or the biofunctionalization by absorption of arginine–glycine–aspartic sequences (RGD), can modify the expression of integrins closely related to the osteoblast activity. For this purpose, we analysed the physicochemical changes induced by irradiation and RGD immobilization, the consequences on cell adhesion and spreading, and the effects on integrin expression. PCL irradiated with 5×1015 He+ /cm2 (10 keV energy) (irr-PCL) showed an altered surface layer with a partial loss of carboxyl species and the formation of carbonyl groups. Moreover, irr-PCL showed a small smoothening effect and a less polar character in comparison to the pristine ones. The RGD immobilization was observed only on irr-PCL (surface coverage: 7.0 pmol/cm2 ). Human osteoblasts (hOB) were cultured on untreated PCL (ut-PCL), ut-PCL+RGD, irr-PCL, and irr-PCL+RGD. After 24 h, ut-PCL hindered the cell adhesion, while a discrete layer of hOB with a good cytoskeleton organization was detected on irr-PCL and irr-PCL+RGD. Before seeding, the single hOB suspension expressed α 1, α 2, α 3, α 5, β 1, and αVβ 3; after 24 h, cells cultured on tissue-plastic expressed high levels of β 1 and αVβ 3, while α 1 showed a low intensity and α 2, α 3, and α 5 were negative. β 1 and α V β 3 were selected to evaluate the interaction between cells and PCL samples. The β 1 expression was higher in hOB cultured on irr-PCL than on the other samples. A significant increase in αVβ 3 expression was observed only in irr-PCL+RGD, and confirmed by the gene expression analysis. In conclusion, ion irradiation and RGD adsorption on PCL surfaces modulate the expression of integrin involved in hOB growth and function, indicating the effectiveness of biomimetic surfaces in promoting cell adhesion. Ultimately, the study of integrin expression may suggest proper changes to the surface structure in order to improve the osteoconductivity of selected materials.
Abstract The reconstruction of bone defects based on cell-seeded constructs requires a functional microvasculature that meets the metabolic demands of the engineered tissue. Therefore, strategies that augment neovascularization need to be identified. We propose an in vitro strategy consisting of the simultaneous culture of osteoblasts and endothelial cells on a starch-based scaffold for the formation of pre-vascular structures, with the final aim of accelerating the establishment of a vascular bed in the implanted construct. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) were co-cultured with human osteoblasts (hOBs) on a 3D starch-based scaffold and after 21 days of culture HDMEC aligned and organized into microcapillary-like structures. These vascular-like structures evolved from a cord-like configuration to a more complex branched morphology, had a lumen and stained in the perivascular region for type IV collagen. Genetic profiling of 84 osteogenesis-related genes was performed on co-culture vs. monoculture. Osteoblasts in co-culture showed a significant up-regulation of type I collagen and immunohistochemistry revealed that the scaffold was filled with a dense matrix stained for type I collagen. In direct contact with HDMEC hOBs secreted higher amounts of VEGF in relation to monoculture and the highest peak in the release profile correlated with the formation of microcapillary-like structures. The heterotypic communication between the two cell types was also assured by direct cell–cell contact as shown by the expression of the gap junction connexin 43. In summary, by making use of heterotypic cellular crosstalk this co-culture system is a strategy to form vascular-like structures in vitro on a 3D scaffold.
Abstract As materials are produced at smaller scales, the properties that make them especially useful for biological applications such as drug delivery, imaging or sensing applications also render them potentially harmful. There has been a reasonable amount of work addressing the interactions of biological fluids at material surfaces that demonstrates the high affinity of protein for particle surfaces and some looking at the role of particle surface chemistry in cellular associations, but mechanisms have been too little addressed outside the context of intended, specific interactions. Here, using cultured endothelium as a model for vascular transport, we demonstrate that the capacity of nanoparticle surfaces to adsorb protein is indicative of their tendency to associate with cells. Quantification of adsorbed protein shows that high binding nanoparticles are maximally coated in seconds to minutes, indicating that proteins on particle surfaces can mediate cell association over much longer time scales. We also remove many of the most abundant proteins from culture media which alters the profile of adsorbed proteins on nanoparticles but does not affect the level of cell association. We therefore conclude that cellular association is not dependent on the identity of adsorbed proteins and therefore unlikely to require specific binding to any particular cellular receptors.
The aim of this work is to review the available literature on the details of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) use for the enhancement of the proliferation of various cultured cell lines including stem cells. A cell culture is one of the most useful techniques in science, particularly in the production of viral vaccines and hybrid cell lines. However, the growth rate of some of the much-needed mammalian cells is slow. LLLT can enhance the proliferation rate of various cell lines. Literature review from 1923 to 2010. By investigating the outcome of LLLT on cell cultures, many articles report that it produces higher rates of ATP, RNA, and DNA synthesis in stem cells and other cell lines. Thus, LLLT improves the proliferation of the cells without causing any cytotoxic effects. Mainly, helium neon and gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) lasers are used for LLLT on cultured cells. The results of LLLT also vary according to the applied energy density and wavelengths to which the target cells are subjected. This review suggests that an energy density value of 0.5 to 4.0 J/cm2 and a visible spectrum ranging from 600 to 700 nm of LLLT are very helpful in enhancing the proliferation rate of various cell lines. With the appropriate use of LLLT, the proliferation rate of cultured cells, including stem cells, can be increased, which would be very useful in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Abstract Synthetic hydrogel scaffolds that can be used as culture systems that mimic the natural stem cell niche are of increased importance for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. These artificial niches can be utilized to control the stem cell fate and will have potential applications for expanding/differentiating stem cells in vitro , delivering stem cells in vivo , as well as making tissue constructs. In this study, we synthesized hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels that could be degraded through a combination of cell-released enzymes and used them to culture mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSC). To form the hydrogels, HA was modified to contain acrylate groups and crosslinked through Michael addition chemistry using non-degradable, plasmin degradable or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) degradable crosslinkers. Using this hydrogel we found that mMSC proliferation occurred in the absence of cell spreading, that mMSCs could only spread when both RGD and MMP degradation sites were present in the hydrogel and that mMSCs in hydrogels with high density of RGD (1000 μ m ) spread and migrated faster and more extensively than in hydrogels with low density of RGD (100 μ m ).
Alveolar bone defect regeneration has long been problematic in the field of dentistry. Gingival stromal progenitor cells (GSPCs) offer a promising solution for alveolar bone regeneration. In order to optimally differentiate and proliferate progenitor cells, growth factors (GFs) are required. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) has many GFs and can be easily manufactured. Core-binding factor subunit-α1 (CBF-α1) constitutes a well-known osteogenic differentiation transcription factor in SPCs. Sox9, as a chondrogenic transcription factor, interacts and inhibits CBF-α1, but its precise role in direct osteogenesis remains unknown. GSPCs cultured in PRF to optimally stimulate osteogenic differentiation has been largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to analyze GSPCs cultured in PRF osteogenic differentiation predicted by CBF-α1/Sox9. : This study used a true experimental with post-test only control group design and random sampling. GPSCs isolated from the lower gingiva of four healthy, 250-gram, 1-month old, male Wistar rats ( ) were cultured for two weeks, passaged every 4-5 days. GSPCs in passage 3-5 were cultured in five M24 plates (N=108; n=6/group) for Day 7, Day 14, and Day 21 in three different mediums (control negative group: αModified Eagle Medium; control positive group: High Glucose-Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM-HG) + osteogenic medium; Treatment group: DMEM-HG + osteogenic medium + PRF). CBF-α1 and Sox9 were examined with ICC monoclonal antibody. A one-way ANOVA continued with Tukey HSD test (p0.05) was performed. The treatment group showed the highest CBF-α1/Sox9 ratio (16.00±3.000/14.33±2.517) on Day 7, while the lowest CBF-α1/Sox9 ratio (3.33±1.528/3.67±1.155) occurred in the control negative group on Day 21, with significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). GSPCs cultured in PRF had potential osteogenic differentiation ability predicted by the CBF-α1/sox9 ratio.
This study demonstrated that immortalized dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) do not form tumors in animals and that immortalized DPSCs can be differentiated into neurons in culture. These results lend support to the use of primary and immortalized DPSCs for future therapeutic approaches to treatment of neurobiological diseases. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) provide an exciting new avenue to study neurogenetic disorders. DPSCs are neural crest‐derived cells with the ability to differentiate into numerous tissues including neurons. The therapeutic potential of stem cell‐derived lines exposed to culturing ex vivo before reintroduction into patients could be limited if the cultured cells acquired tumorigenic potential. We tested whether DPSCs that spontaneously immortalized in culture acquired features of transformed cells. We analyzed immortalized DPSCs for anchorage‐independent growth, genomic instability, and ability to differentiate into neurons. Finally, we tested both spontaneously immortalized and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)‐immortalized DPSC lines for the ability to form tumors in immunocompromised animals. Although we observed increased colony‐forming potential in soft agar for the spontaneously immortalized and hTERT‐immortalized DPSC lines relative to low‐passage DPSC, no tumors were detected from any of the DPSC lines tested. We noticed some genomic instability in hTERT‐immortalized DPSCs but not in the spontaneously immortalized lines tested. We determined that immortalized DPSC lines generated in our laboratory, whether spontaneously or induced, have not acquired the potential to form tumors in mice. These data suggest cultured DPSC lines that can be differentiated into neurons may be safe for future in vivo therapy for neurobiological diseases. Significance This study demonstrated that immortalized dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) do not form tumors in animals and that immortalized DPSCs can be differentiated into neurons in culture. These results lend support to the use of primary and immortalized DPSCs for future therapeutic approaches to treatment of neurobiological diseases.
Abstract Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) possess great therapeutic potential for the treatment of bone disease and fracture non-union. Too often however, in vitro evidence alone of the interaction between hMSCs and the biomaterial of choice is used as justification for continued development of the material into the clinic. Clearly for hMSC-based regenerative medicine to be successful for the treatment of orthopaedic trauma, it is crucial to transplant hMSCs with a suitable carrier that facilitates their survival, optimal proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo . This motivated us to evaluate the use of polycaprolactone-20% tricalcium phosphate (PCL–TCP) scaffolds produced by fused deposition modeling for the delivery of hMSCs. When hMSCs were cultured on the PCL–TCP scaffolds and imaged by a combination of phase contrast, scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy, we observed five distinct stages of colonization over a 21-day period that were characterized by cell attachment, spreading, cellular bridging, the formation of a dense cellular mass and the accumulation of a mineralized extracellular matrix when induced with osteogenic stimulants. Having established that PCL–TCP scaffolds are able to support hMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, we next tested the in vivo efficacy of hMSC-loaded PCL–TCP scaffolds in nude rat critical-sized femoral defects. We found that fluorescently labeled hMSCs survived in the defect site for up to 3 weeks post-transplantation. However, only 50% of the femoral defects treated with hMSCs responded favorably as determined by new bone volume. As such, we show that verification of hMSC viability and differentiation in vitro is not sufficient to predict the efficacy of transplanted stem cells to consistently promote bone formation in orthotopic defects in vivo.