Proteomics, an interface of rapidly evolving advances in physics and biology, is rapidly developing and expanding its potential applications to molecular and cellular biology. Application of proteomics tools has contributed towards identification of relevant protein biomarkers that can potentially change the strategies for early diagnosis and treatment of several diseases. The emergence of powerful mass spectrometry-based proteomics technique has added a new dimension to the field of medical research in liver, heart diseases and certain forms of cancer. Most proteomics tools are also being used to study physiological and pathological events related to reproductive biology. There have been attempts to generate the proteomes of testes, sperm, seminal fluid, epididymis, oocyte, and endometrium from reproductive disease patients. Here, we have reviewed proteomics based investigations in humans over the last decade, which focus on delineating the mechanism underlying various reproductive events such as spermatogenesis, oogenesis, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, embryo development. The challenge is to harness new technologies like 2-DE, DIGE, MALDI-MS, SELDI-MS, MUDPIT, LC–MS etc., to a greater extent to develop widely applicable clinical tools in understanding molecular aspects of reproduction both in health and disease. ► Proteomics studies in the field of reproductive biology ► Molecular mechanism involved in physiological and pathological conditions in reproductive tissues/body fluids in normal and diseased state ► Newer studies to solve unanswered questions associated with pathology of disease and biomarker discovery using proteomics tools
The present study was conducted to assess the chemical composition of Yellow Maca ( ) and its biological activity on stallions following oral administration of hypocotyl powder. Maca was subjected to methanolic extraction and the chemical analysis was carried out by LC-MS-QTOF (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). Our results showed that Maca contains some effective antioxidants, a high percentage of glucosinolates, and other important components with a high antioxidant capacity. To evaluate the plant biological activity in stallions fed with Maca powder for 60 days, the redox status and some reproductive parameters were investigated. Blood and semen samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 90 days from the beginning of this study. Blood samples showed a decrease of the reactive oxygen metabolites, evaluated by d-ROMs test, and an increase of the antioxidant barrier in terms of biological antioxidant potential (BAP test), powerful oxidant capacity (OXY-Adsorbent test), and thiols evaluation (-SHp test). Furthermore, semen samples showed a positive trend during Maca administration in the following parameters: ejaculate volumes and sperm concentrations, total and progressive motility, and acrosome integrity.
Genetics and molecular biology have been instrumental for a better understanding of heritable defects causing human infertility over the past decades. More recently, the field of reproductive biology has harnessed genome biological approaches to gain insight into molecular processes underlying normal and pathological gametogenesis and gamete function. We are currently witnessing yet another quantum leap in our ability to monitor the flow of information from the genome via the transcriptome to the proteome: tiling arrays that cover both strands of a given target genome and RNA-Seq, a method based on ultra-high throughput DNA sequencing, enable us to study noncoding and protein-coding transcripts with unprecedented precision and depth at a reasonable cost. These technologies have spawned a thriving discipline within the bioinformatics field that employs information technology for managing and interpreting biological high-throughput data. This review outlines database projects and online analysis tools useful for life scientists in general and discusses in detail selected projects that have specifically been developed for researchers and clinicians in the field of reproductive biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular Genetics of Human Reproductive Failure. ► GermOnline cross-species array database. ► Global array repositories and array data search engines. ► Gene Prioritization tools for high-throughput data interpretation. ► Wiki-based community annotation.