In the field of noncovalent interactions a new paradigm has recently become popular. It stems from the analysis of molecular electrostatic potentials and introduces a label, which has recently attracted enormous attention. The label is σ-hole, and it was first used in connection with halogens. It initiated a renaissance of interest in halogenated compounds, and later on, when found also on other groups of atoms (chalcogens, pnicogens, tetrels and aerogens), it resulted in a new direction of research of intermolecular interactions. In this review, we summarize advances from about the last 10 years in understanding those interactions related to σ-hole. We pay particular attention to theoretical and computational techniques, which play a crucial role in the field.
The σ-hole and π-hole are the regions with positive surface electrostatic potential on the molecule entity; the former specifically refers to the positive region of a molecular entity along extension of the Y-Ge/P/Se/X covalent σ-bond (Y = electron-rich group; Ge/P/Se/X = Groups IV-VII), while the latter refers to the positive region in the direction perpendicular to the σ-framework of the molecular entity. The directional noncovalent interactions between the σ-hole or π-hole and the negative or electron-rich sites are named σ-hole bond or π-hole bond, respectively. The contributions from electrostatic, charge transfer, and other terms or Coulombic interaction to the σ-hole bond and π-hole bond were reviewed first followed by a brief discussion on the interplay between the σ-hole bond and the π-hole bond as well as application of the two types of noncovalent interactions in the field of anion recognition. It is expected that this review could stimulate further development of the σ-hole bond and π-hole bond in theoretical exploration and practical application in the future.
The catalytic dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and amines to form aldimines represents an environmentally benign methodology in organic chemistry. This has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts. We present the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and amines to form imines and H2 that is catalyzed, for the first time, by a complex of the earth-abundant Mn. Detailed mechanistic study was carried out with the aid of NMR spectroscopy, intermediate isolation, and X-ray analysis.
From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold coordination compounds. In fact, several studies have proved that they can be used to develop highly efficient metal-based drugs with possible applications in the treatment of cancer. This Perspective summarizes the results obtained for different families of bioactive organometallic gold compounds including cyclometallated gold( iii ) complexes with C,N-donor ligands, gold( i ) and gold( i / iii ) N-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene complexes, as well as gold( i ) alkynyl complexes, with promising anticancer effects. Most importantly, we will focus on recent developments in the field and discuss the potential of this class of organometallic compounds in relation to their versatile chemistry and innovative mechanisms of action. This review provides an overview of the recent results concerning anticancer organometallic gold compounds and related mechanistic insights.
Revealing the size-dependent periodicities (including formula, growth pattern, and property evolution) is an important task in metal nanocluster research. However, investigation on this major issue has been complicated, as the size change is often accompanied by a structural change. Herein, with the successful determination of the Au44(TBBT)28 structure, where TBBT = 4-tert-butylbenzenethiolate, the missing size in the family of Au28(TBBT)20, Au36(TBBT)24, and Au52(TBBT)32 nanoclusters is filled, and a neat "magic series" with a unified formula of Au8n+4(TBBT)4n+8 (n = 3-6) is identified. Such a periodicity in magic numbers is a reflection of the uniform anisotropic growth patterns in this magic series, and the n value is correlated with the number of (001) layers in the face-centered cubic lattice. The size-dependent quantum confinement nature of this magic series is further understood by empirical scaling law, classical "particle in a box" model, and the density functional theory calculations.
Chiral amines are valuable building blocks for the pharmaceutical industry. ω-TAms have emerged as an exciting option for their synthesis, offering a potential "green alternative" to overcome the drawbacks associated with conventional chemical methods. In this review, we explore the application of ω-TAms for pharmaceutical production. We discuss the diverse array of reactions available involving ω-TAms and process considerations of their use in both kinetic resolution and asymmetric synthesis. With the aid of specific drug intermediates and APIs, we chart the development of ω-TAms using protein engineering and their contribution to elegant one-pot cascades with other enzymes, including carbonyl reductases (CREDs), hydrolases and monoamine oxidases (MAOs), providing a comprehensive overview of their uses, beginning with initial applications through to the present day.
When using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to perform untargeted metabolomics, it is now routine to detect tens of thousands of features from biological samples. Poor understanding of the data, however, has complicated interpretation and masked the number of unique metabolites actually being measured in an experiment. Here we place an upper bound on the number of unique metabolites detected in Escherichia coli samples analyzed with one untargeted metabolomics method. We first group multiple features arising from the same analyte, which we call "degenerate features", using a context-driven annotation approach. Surprisingly, this analysis revealed thousands of previously unreported degeneracies that reduced the number of unique analytes to ∼2961. We then applied an orthogonal approach to remove nonbiological features from the data using the C-based credentialing technology. This further reduced the number of unique analytes to less than 1000. Our 90% reduction in data is 5-fold greater than previously published studies. On the basis of the results, we propose an alternative approach to untargeted metabolomics that relies on thoroughly annotated reference data sets. To this end, we introduce the creDBle database ( http://creDBle.wustl.edu ), which contains accurate mass, retention time, and MS/MS fragmentation data as well as annotations of all credentialed features.
In this work, a novel dual photoelectrochemical/colorimetric cyto-analysis format was first introduced into a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μ-PAD) for synchronous sensitive and visual detection of H2O2 released from tumor cells based on an in situ hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) cleaving DNA approach. The resulted μ-PAD offered an excellent platform for high-performance biosensing applications, which was constructed by a layer-by-layer modification of concanavalin A, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) labeled flower-like Au@Pd alloy nanoparticles (NPs) probe, and tumor cells on the surface of the vertically aligned bamboo like ZnO, which grows on a pyknotic Pt NPs modified paper working electrode (ZnO/Pt-PWE). It was the effective matching of energy levels between GQDs and ZnO levels that lead to the enhancement of the photocurrent response compared with the bare ZnO/Pt-PWE. After releasing H2O2, the DNA strand was cleaved by (•)OH generated under the synergistic catalysis of GQDs and Au@Pd alloy NPs and thus, reduced the photocurrent, resulting in a high sensitivity to H2O2 in aqueous solutions with a detection limit of 0.05 nmol observed, much lower than that in the previously reported method. The disengaged probe can result in catalytic chromogenic reaction of substrates, resulting in real-time imaging of H2O2 biological processes. Therefore, this work provided a truly low-cost, simple, and disposable μ-PAD for precise and visual detection of cellular H2O2, which had potential utility to cellular biology and pathophysiology.