There is strong interest in culturing live marine baitfish for anglers. However, there is scant information about saltwater anglers' perception of cultured baitfish. Thus, a survey was developed and administered to assess recreational saltwater angler's preferences for baitfish, their attitudes towards cultured baitfish, supply and demand, and specific information about pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides) and pigfish (Orthopristis chrysoptera). An online survey invitation was e-mailed to 227,829 licensed marine recreational anglers in Florida. A total of 14,871 respondents completed some portion of the survey (6.5% response rate). Inshore destinations were the most common fishing trips taken. Live bait was caught by 57.8% of respondents, purchased by 32.1%, and 10.1% did not use live bait. Perceptions of aquaculture as a means of producing bait were 43.8% positive, 20.6% somewhat positive, and 31% unknown. Consistent availability and price were identified by anglers as the two most important characteristics for an aquaculture produced marine baitfish.
Interactions between fisheries and aquaculture have become a major issue that is still insufficiently studied. Therefore, the objective of this article is to test whether the cultured and wild gilthead sea bream in the Spanish seafood markets are integrated. By using the Johansen methodology, cointegration of the price series of farmed and wild gilthead sea bream was tested. In contrast to previous studies, our econometric results show that wild and the farmed gilthead sea bream form two heterogeneous products in the Spanish market. These new results question the generalization currently accepted by the scientific literature that farmed and wild fish are substitutes when they belong to the same species. The binomial product-market, along with some specific features of the Spanish market, such as the negative perceptions of aquaculture by some significant groups of consumers, appeared to have a great explanatory power for justifying these different results.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how social forces are imposed on fund managers when they do their jobs of observing company information, in particular intellectual capital (IC) information.Design methodology approach - The paper uses a qualitative research approach involving interviews with 14 fund managers in Stockholm. The empirical analysis and the theoretical discussion are influenced by a combination of system and network theories where social networks are built up by communication.Findings - Fund managers are influenced by the rationale of social networks when they reduce the complexity in company information. Three social forces emerged from the empirical data which influence fund managers when they deal with corporate information; the involvement of the organisational code, the market price and rationale, and the agenda surrounding a company. Furthermore, increased complexity of IC information does not seem to bother fund managers. The rationale of interacting social networks reduces this complexity in order for the information to make sense in its meaning-based reproduction.Originality value - This paper argues that in order to deepen our understanding about the communication between companies and actors on the capital market we need to open up the issue of how complexity is dealt with. Based on the theoretical framework used in the study, information barriers become variables between the rationales of social networks.
This paper analyzes the distributive dynamics associated with production, access to, and use of tissue-cultured banana plantlets in Costa Rica and Jamaica. In particular, it studies the research, commercialization, and production strategies undertaken in these two countries. It identifies the actors involved, the mechanisms implemented to produce and improve access to tissue cultured plants, as well as barriers to broad-based adoption. The discussion is framed by the concept of absorptive capacities and more particularly, by a revised perspective that differentiates between potential and realized capacities. In so doing, it emphasizes the dynamic aspects behind the process of moving from potential to realized capacities. Inherent aspects of tissue culture technology overlap and interact with socio-economic conditions; and become key to the dynamics of knowledge advancement, production, and distribution of benefits. In this context, policy choices play a major role in directing the dynamics towards a more distributed technological development.
This paper explores the relationship between product quality evaluation scores for wild and cultured seabream. Data comes from a consumer survey representative of the Spanish fish and seafood market, from where seabream consumers who were able to distinguish wild from cultured were selected for specific questions. A behavioral structural equation model with factorial latent variables was formulated to test the interaction hypothesis. Results suggest that both wild and cultured seabream share a common image linked to the whole species, becoming complementary goods rather than substitutes.
Land-based marine pearl culture is a novel technological concept suitable for all three important species of pearl oysters. Advantages include lack of fouling and avoidance of boring and predation. An economic evaluation of onshore marine pearl culture production was conducted to provide basic information about the practice. The average annual cost of production over the estimated 10-year period was $158,127 (U.S.), net operating income was $159,197 (U.S.) and the net income was $49,244 (U.S.). The average annual pearl production of 28 kg was higher than the break-even production of 15 kg. The break-even price was estimated at $6.60 (U.S.) per gram of pearl. Net Present Value (NPV) was estimated at $137,416 (U.S.) and the Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) at 1.20 (20% discount rate). The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) was estimated at 28%.
The continued exponential growth of the price-performance of computing is likely to effectuate technologies that radically transform both the global economy and the human condition over the course of this century. Conventional visions of the next 50. years fail to realistically account for the full implications of accelerating technological change driven by the exponential growth of computing, and as a result are deeply flawed. These flawed visions are, in part, a consequence of three interrelated errors in reasoning: 1) the linear projection fallacy, 2) the ceteris paribus fallacy, and 3) the arrival fallacy. Each of these informal fallacies is likely a manifestation of shortcomings in our intuitions about complex dynamic systems. Recognizing these errors and identifying when and where they affect our own reasoning is an important first step toward thinking more realistically about the future.
Artisanal half-pearl culture has been shown to provide livelihood and economic opportunities for coastal communities in Tanzania that depend directly on exploitation of marine resources. However, these pilot research studies have been supported by donor organisations and the economic feasibility of such development has not yet been assessed. Furthermore, there is little understanding of the costs required to establish pearl farms and the relative impacts of farm size on production, running costs, profitability and risks involved in production. The aim of this study was to develop economic models for subsistence level half-pearl culture in Tanzania. Models were generated for various scenarios relating to farm size and products (i.e. half-pearls and juvenile oyster or ‘spat’ collection) and they give detail on infrastructure costs, operational costs and income generated for various levels of operation. We concluded that the most profitable model for community-based pearl farming is to culture at least 600 oysters for half-pearl production. However, for communities to be able to run a sustainable and profitable enterprise, development of a sustainable source of oysters is crucial. Farmers can also generate income from collection of juvenile oysters and their subsequent sale to pearl farmers, but this is less profitable than half-pearl farming and requires a longer operational period before profits are made. Like pearl farming, there were major benefits or economies of scale with the largest farms tested providing greatest profit and/or a shorter time required to reach profitability. Our results provide a valuable source of information for prospective pearl farmers, donors, funding bodies and other stakeholders, and valuable extension information supporting further development of pearl culture in Tanzania.