This study examined the relationship between molecular properties and the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in the aqueous and solid phases during wastewater treatment by MBR. A set of 29 TrOCs was selected to represent pharmaceuticals, steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, UV-filters and pesticides that occur ubiquitously in municipal wastewater. Both adsorption and biodegradation/transformation were found responsible for the removal of TrOCs by MBR treatment. A connection between biodegradation and molecular structure could be observed while adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism for the hydrophobic (log > 3.2) compounds. Highly hydrophobic (log > 3.2) but readily biodegradable compounds did not accumulate in sludge. In contrast, recalcitrant compounds with a moderate hydrophobicity, such as carbamazepine, accumulated significantly in the solid phase. The results provide a framework to predict the removal and fate of TrOCs by MBR treatment.
The current study investigates the application of different concentrations of phenols (recovered from olive mill wastewater) as UV booster in cosmetics. The spectrums (220–400 nm) of 0–15 mg olive phenols/L combined with physical (30 mg TiO /L) and chemical (5 mg Benzophenone-3, 5 mg Uvinol A, 2 mg Octocrylene, 1 mg OMC and 0.5 mg OC-PABA/L) sunscreen agents were obtained and the SPF of respective solutions were calculated. In both UVB and UVA regions, absorption of synthetic UV filters increased as a function of olive phenols concentration, whereas the relationship between SPF increase and olive phenols concentration was linear. The corresponding equations could be used to estimate the amount of added olive phenols in order to reach a desirable SPF value and partially replace the amount of synthetic filters in the final product. The entrapment of olive phenols in silica particles and/or liposomes prior their emulsification in cosmetics was also investigated and resulted in an increase of phenols' water resistance. The results of the current study reveal the potentiality of using olive mill wastewater as a source for the recovery of phenols and their application as UV booster in cosmetics.
Abscisic acid (ABA), as a commonly used plant growth regulator, is easy to be degraded and lose its bioactivity under sunshine. To select an eco-friendly and efficient photoprotectant for the improvement of photostability and bioactivity of ABA when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light, we tested the effects of three biodegradable natural-derived high polymers, sodium lignosulfonates 3A [molecular weight (MW) > 50000, with degree of sulfonation (DS) of 0.48] and NA (20000 < MW < 50000, with DS of 0.7) and calcium lignosulfonate CASA (MW < 20000, with DS of 0.7), on the photodegradation of ABA. Lignosulfonates 3A, NA, and CASA showed significant photostabilizing capability on ABA. Lignosulfonate 3A showed preferable photostabilizing effects on ABA compared to CASA, while NA showed an intermediate effect. That indicated that lignosulfonate with a high MW and low DS had a stronger UV absorption and the hollow aggregate micelles formatted by lignosulfonate protect ABA from UV damage. Approximately 50% more ABA was kept when 280 mg/L ABA aqueous solution was irradiated by UV light for 2 h in the presence of 2000 mg/L lignosulfonate 3A. The bioactivity on wheat (JIMAI 22) seed germination was greatly kept by 3A in comparison to that of ABA alone. The 300 times diluent of 280 mg/L ABA plus 2000 mg/L 3A after 2 h of irradiation showed 20.8, 19.3, and 9.3% more inhibition on shoot growth, root growth, and root numbers of wheat seed, separately, in comparison to ABA diluent alone. We conclude that lignosulfonate 3A was an eco-friendly and efficient agent to keep ABA activity under UV radiation. This research could be used in UV-sensitive and water-soluble agrichemicals and to optimize the application times and dosages of ABA products.
Green L. seed oil (GCO) has been used as an active ingredient in many skin care products, due to its properties as an emollient, improver of skin hydration and absorbent of UVB radiation. However, to obtain a stable, effective and pleasant formulation containing variable amounts of GCO it is necessary to know specific chemical characteristics of the combined ingredients. Thus, this study evaluated rheological behavior, presence of liquid crystals (LCs) and skin protective effects of GCO-containing formulations aiming to correlate these parameters with GCO concentrations by using a principal component analysis (PCA). Formulations containing GCO or not (0–15%) were submitted to physical stability assays by determinations of rheological behavior after 90 days storage, detection of LCs by polarized light microscopy and determination of the sun protection factor (SPF). protective effects in mice were evaluated with biophysical techniques and histological analysis. Data were correlated using PCA. Despite the low SPF values, GCO addition to formulations resulted in significant and proportional increases of these values. It is concluded that formulation stability and skin protective properties are influenced by GCO but desirable effects are only possible when GCO is present in high concentrations.
Plant oils are widely recognized for their beneficial effects in the cosmetic industry, possessing many biological activities. These natural oils provide multiple advantages such as superior antioxidant, nutraceutical, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and emollient properties. This study aims to consider the great importance of the various fractions of plant oils in the development of innovative sunscreen formulations based on nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) which act as delivery systems for three antioxidant and anti-UV bioactives. Amaranth oil (AO) – and pumpkin seed oil (PSO) – were fitted in the lipid NLCs core, forming new delivery systems able to simultaneously entrap two UVA and UVB filters (diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate – DHHB, 2-ethylhexyl salicylate – EHS), and an antioxidant (hesperidin – HES). The dimensional investigation showed that the type of vegetable oil had no significant influence on NLC size, the main diameters being ranged between 110 and 125 nm. The evaluation of physical stability during 3 months has revealed extremely electronegative zeta potential values, between −44 and −54 mV, reflecting an excellent physical stability. A unique feature of the developed nano-delivery systems is that they provide a differentiated release of the three active principles, a sustained release of the natural antioxidant maintaining significant amounts of UVA and UVB filters in the formulation. The antioxidant properties, evaluated by two techniques, showed that NLCs exhibit a high percent of short-time life radical inhibition, respectively 93–98%. The most effective scavenging system of oxygen free radicals has proved to be the NLC prepared with AO that contains 82% Squalene, while a better ability to inhibit ABTS cation radicals was detected for NLC prepared with an amaranth fraction of 34% Squalene. The entrapment process had a great influence on the UV-absorptive properties, the SPF and UVA-PF values being remarkable, even the amount of UV filters was extremely reduced in comparison with that one existent in commercial creams; the hydrogels based on NLC-EHS-DHHB-HES assure an absorption of 99% UVB radiations (SPF = 46/50.5) and have an ability tocombat 83% of UVA radiation (UVA-PF ranging between 13.9 and 15.5). In conclusion, this study provides an innovative and non-invasive design of herbal cosmetic formulations with superior photoprotection and enhanced antioxidant properties that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging.
The use of has been partially successful in the removal of some pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge in laboratory-scale biopile systems. The application of two strategies for the re-inoculation of biomass was assessed during the fungal bioaugmentation of non-sterile sludge (42-d treatment) as an approach to improve the elimination of pharmaceuticals and other groups of emerging pollutants. Globally, the re-inoculation of biopiles with blended mycelium exerted a major effect on the removal of pharmaceuticals (86%), brominated-flame-retardants (81%) and UV filters (80%) with respect to the re-inoculation with additional lignocellulosic substrate colonized by the fungus (69–67–22%). The performance was better than that of the analogous non-re-inoculated systems that were assayed previously for the removal of pharmaceuticals. The results demonstrate the ability of to remove a wide spectrum of emerging micropollutants under non-sterile conditions, while re-inoculation appears to be a useful step to improve the fungal treatment of sludge.
An accurate and sensitive method for the determination of selected EDCs in soil and compost from wastewater treatment plants is developed and validated. Five parabens, six benzophenone-UV filters and the antibacterials triclosan and triclocarban were selected as target analytes. The parameters for ultrasound-assisted extraction were thoroughly optimized. After extraction, the analytes were detected and quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Ethylparaben (ring– C labelled) and deuterated benzophenone (BP-d ) were used as internal standards. The method was validated using matrix–matched calibration and recovery assays with spiked samples. The limits of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.40 ng g and the limits of quantification from 0.1 to 1.0 ng g , while precision in terms of relative standard deviation was between 9% and 21%. Recovery rates ranged from 83% to 107%. The validated method was applied for the study of the behavior of the selected compounds in agricultural soils treated and un-treated with compost from WWTP. A lixiviation study was developed in both agricultural soil and treated soil and first order kinetic models of their disappearance at different depths are proposed. The application of organic composts in the soil leads to an increase of the disappearance rate of the studied compounds. The lixiviation study also shows the risk of pollution of groundwater aquifers after disposal or waste of these EDCs in agricultural soils is not high.
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the stability of cosmetic formulations containing botanical extracts of Açai, Chamomile and Green Tea, promising adjuvants in cosmetic preparations. The extracts were previously submitted to photostability and antioxidant activity studies. Antioxidant activity was determined by chemiluminescence and the total phenolic content by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Photostability of the extracts was also determined in the formulations after these have been developed. Experimental formulations were prepared containing extracts of Açai, Chamomile and Green Tea and submitted to accelerated stability studies, determination of rheological properties and to sensorial analysis. Results showed that all extracts had a potential antioxidant effect, Green Tea being the most promising one. It had the highest total phenolic content, which may explain the difference observed. The formulation containing Green Tea extract also showed the best performance in sensorial analysis. It is concluded that all extracts seem to have promising properties for use in cosmetic formulations. Green Tea extract, however, had a significant performance in all studies.
The effect of seed pre-treatment with a static magnetic field (SMF) of 200 mT for 1 h on the impact of ambient UV (280–400 nm) stress was tested using soybean var. JS-335 seeds. The SMF-pre-treated and untreated seeds were sown in plastic nursery bags placed in iron mesh cages covered with polyester filters that cutoff UV-B (<315 nm) and UV-A/B (<400 nm) radiations, transmitted all the ambient UV or without filters. The results of solar UV exclusion suggested that ambient UV caused reduction in growth, nitrogen, and carbon metabolism which ultimately reduced the yield of soybean seedlings, whereas SMF-pre-treatment increased plant height, leaf area, biomass accumulation with higher Lb, and hemechrome content in the root nodules, and improved the PS II efficiency and rate of photosynthesis both in the presence of solar UV components as well as under exclusion of solar UV as compared to untreated seeds. The amount of ROS like hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD) assayed in the leaves of soybean were higher in the plants grown under ambient UV as compared to the exclusion of solar UV. Whereas under ambient UV stress, the plants that emerged from SMF-treated seeds showed lower amount of H2O2 and lesser activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, GR, and POD as compared to untreated seeds. Thus, reduction in the H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities after SMF-pre-treatment and UV exclusion indicated that solar UV components exert a significant stress on soybean plants. The levels of UAS were also decreased by both exclusion of UV and SMF-treatment. Reduction in the production of UAS indicated a changed pattern of metabolism leading to improved primary metabolism. The results indicate that exclusion of solar UV components and SMF-pre-treatment eliminates the need for defense against the ambient UV stress. Comparing SMF-treated groups with their respective untreated group, the remedial effects of SMF were found to be more striking on overall growth, nitrogen metabolism, and photosynthetic performance even in the presence of ambient UV stress. Consequently, SMF-pre-treatment ameliorated the ambient UV stress, so that the plants do not have to divert their metabolic energy for detoxification of ROS produced under UV stress. Thus, SMF-pre-treatment can be effectively used for alleviation of adverse effect of ambient UV stress and improve the yield of crop plants.
In the tropics, solar UV-B background level is often high and can affect growth and development of vegetables. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), which is not native to India, may be detrimentally affected by solar ultraviolet (UV). This UV radiation-impacting plants can affect defense system by activating, or elevating, antioxidant enzymes. The study was undertaken to determine physiological and defensive responses of fenugreek to solar UV from 280 to 400 nm. The UV-B and UV-B+A were excluded with appropriate ﬁlters to assess effects of UV-B radiation under field conditions. Plants were grown in iron mesh cages covered with ﬁlters to speciﬁcally exclude UV-B (280-315 nm) or UV-B+A (280-400 nm) solar radiation. Control plants were grown under polyethylene ﬁlters transmissible to solar UV. Exclusion of solar UV enhanced plant height, leaf area, and fresh and dry weight of plants compared to the control. Exclusion of UV-B and UV-B+A decreased levels of antioxidants ascorbic acid (ASA), malondialdehyde, and activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, ASA peroxidase, and guaiacol peroxidase in leaves compared to the control. There was a reduction in UV absorbing substances (UAS) after solar UV exclusion. The overall decrease in levels of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes by solar UV exclusion demonstrates that ambient UV components exert detrimental effects and can potentially reduce growth and yield of fenugreek. Reduced amount of UAS and antioxidant enzymes in UV-excluded plants indicates that plants do not have to divert metabolic energy in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced due to exposure to solar UV. The metabolic energy required for scavenging these ROS was efficiently utilized toward maintaining growth of plants and improved the crop yield under exclusion of ambient UV conditions.