Goronyo Dam is the largest lentic waterbody in Sokoto, it was constructed to serve as flood control and used for irrigation activities. The study was conducted to evaluate productivity status and fish diversity of Goronyo Dam in 2016. Water samples were collected monthly from the Dam at two sampling sites (Upstream and Downstream). Water samples were collected using sterilized sampling bottles and analyzed in the Laboratory for physicochemical variables and the diversity of fish was evaluated through the use of a structured questionnaire. Depth and transparency were the only variables that did not show any statistically significant difference between the months. Productivity status of the dam was evaluated using Carlson’s Trophic State Index. The downstream has high TSI value of 16.54 compared to upstream with 13.00. A diversity of fishes from the shows that 3 species were more abundant in the dam, these were; Mormyrops species, Alestes species and Clupeid species. Factors contributed to the survival of fish species were an abundance of water and plankton in the dam. While factors affecting the distribution of fish species were pollution and predation.
This analysis compared the suitability of contiguous fallow-forest lands for cassava, yam, cocoyam and sweet potato production in Nsukka, south-eastern Nigeria. The fallow plots were brought into cultivation in 1998 under the IITA-UNN long-term collaborative research. The sole cassava plots were grown to cassava only continuously for five years and then left to fallow. Soil samples were collected from 0-20 cm depth in triplicates using an auger and core sampler from the seven representative fallow plots previously grown to sole cassava from 1998–2003 and under fallow till date as well as the adjacent forest land. The objective was to use the soil qualities as recovered during the fallow period and those from the original adjacent forest to determine their current suitability for the production of the four crops. Using the FAO’s principle of limiting conditions revealed that after 13 yrs of fallow, the plots grown to sole cassava was classified as highly suitable (S1) for sweet potato production but moderately suitable (S2) for cassava, yam and cocoyam production. The remnant forest land was highly suitable for sweet potato production but moderately suitable for cassava, yam and cocoyam production. The dominant soil limitations are organic matter, low cation exchange capacity and exchangeable potassium for both cassava and yam production. The major limitations to cocoyam production are low available phosphorous, base saturation and soil pH. If these constraints are addressed adequately by soil nutrient management programmes all the plots will scale up to S1 class for the four crops.
The use of Moringa oleifera leaves extract as plant growth hormone on cowpea plant (Vigna unguiculata) has been studied at the biological garden of Usmanu Danfodiyo university, Sokoto. An extract was made by grinding young moringa leaves and diluted with water at the ratio of 1:30 25 mls, three blocks were made labelled M, F and D, with three replications each, the extract prepared was applied on block ‘M’ only, while a small pinch of synthetic fertilizer (Urea) was applied in block ‘F’ and a control treatment was set up using distilled water, which applied to each plant in hill D. results indicates that in the 3rd week of observation the cowpea plants treated with moringa extract have the highest mean of stems, number of leaves and branches, length of leaves and branches, and thickness of stem. Then followed by those treated fertilizer mean and finally those treated with distilled water this result shows that moringa leaves extract has an improving effects on the growth of cowpea. Moringa leaf extract (MLE) is rich with numerous growth hormones, particularly zeatin that has been reported to increase the crops yield in the range of 10-45 %. Moringa leaf juice also contains micronutrients in sufficient quantities and suitable proportions that increase the growth, yield components and yield of a variety of crops.
The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyzes poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions) to analyze information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that, most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in social organization, level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. Government of the region should also improve educational facilities in the rural areas and make marginal lands available to less privileged farmers.