Hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua L were cultured in a modified inner-loop airlift bioreactor for achieving maximum artemisinin production. The effects of initial pH, air flow rate, cycle of light irradiation and temperature on growth and artmisinin production in Artemisia annua L hairy root cultures were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the maximum production of artemisinin reached to 577.5 mg/l after 20 days.
The newly designed nutrient mist bioreactor provided an environment supporting multiple-layer culture. In vitro tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were induced and cultured in this bioreactor by using two culture methods. The percentage of the inocula eventually forming tubers in a two-step method was 98% with only 54% being formed in a one-step method. The two-step method improved the efficiency of tuber induction, expedited and synchronized the tuberization.
An internal loop airlift bioreactor with sifter riser (ILABSR) was composed of a bubble column and a draught-tube rolled with 40-mesh sifter that placed 5 cm above the bottom at the center of the column. A 2 L ILABSR was used for the suspension cultivation of Cistanche deserticola cells and its performance was compared with shake flask culture and a bubble column. Under the optimum culture conditions with the air flowrate of 0.075 m(3)/h and the inoculation size of 4.7%, about one-fifth cells were attached to the sifter draught-tube. PeG content in these cells was 16.3%, which was 104% higher than that of suspension cells. The production of phenylethanoid glycosides reached 0.85 g/L, which was 102 and 4% higher than those cultured in a 2 L bubble column and shake flasks respectively under their optimal culture conditions. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This research was designed to screen for strains that produce microbial oil by using straw as the substrate. One hundred and forty-one isolates of endophytic fungi were obtained from stems of seven oleaginous plant species. Sixty-nine isolates (48.9% of the total isolates) could be clearly seen having lipid bodies in their hyphae when examined with optical microscopy. Twenty-six isolates which had bigger and more oil bodies in their hyphae were selected for further research. These isolates belong to five genera including Microsphaeropsis, Phomopsis, Cephalosporium, Sclerocystis and Nigrospora. Their oil contents ranged from 21.3 to 35.0% of dry cell weights when cultured in potato dextrose broth. When cultured on the solid-state medium composed of steam-exploded wheat straw (20% w/w), wheat bran (5%) and water (75%) they were able to produce cellulase and microbial oil with yields of 0.31 similar to 0.69 filter paper unit and 19 similar to 42 mg/g initial dry substrate, respectively. These results show that some endophytic fungi isolated from the oleaginous plants have the abilities of accumulating oil and producing cellulase simultaneously. They may be potential microbial oil producers by utilising straw as the substrate.
An efficient plant regeneration protocol for rapidly propagating Rhodiola fastigiata (Hk. f. et Thoms.) S.H.FU, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, was developed. Shoot organogenesis occurred from the leaf explants inoculated on medium with appropriate supplements of plant growth regulators. Up to 5.3 shoots formed per leaf explant cultured on a medium containing 13.32 mu M 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.54 mu M 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Regenerated shoots formed complete plantlets on a medium containing 1.48 mu M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and mature plants were established, acclimatized, and thrived in greenhouse conditions. The regeneration protocol developed in this study provides a basis for germplasm conservation and for further investigation of medicinally active constituents of the elite Chinese medicinal plant.
Light irradiation had remarkable effects on the callus growth of Cistanche deserticola and biosynthesis of phenylethanoid glycosides (PeG). After 30 days of culture, the callus biomass and production of PeG reached 15.5 g dry weight (DW)/l and 1.7 g/l, respectively, at its light saturation point (24 mumol/m(2) s). The callus cultured under blue light at 435 nm gave both the highest biomass (18.4 g DW/l) and production of PeG (2.4 g/l), which were 19 and 41% higher than those obtained under white light. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Azotobacter vinelandii was cultured on technical lignin, derived from Kraft pulping processes, for biofertilizer production in solid-state fermentation. The effects of the ratio of technical lignin to corn straw, initial water content, and material bed depth on the microorganisms were studied in detail. At 30 degreesC, technical lignin to corn straw at the ratio of 1:0.75, the bed depth of 5 cm, and 67% moisture content, A. vinelandii was grown and reached 4.2 x 10(10) cfu g(-1) dry rot after 36 h. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A novel material for biopulp-making, steam-exploded wheat straw (SEWS), was studied. During the steam explosion process, the hemicellulose was partly degraded and became water-soluble sugar as the carbon resource of the chosen microbe growth, and compared with non-SEWS, the degradation amount of cellulose decreased and the degradation amount of lignin increased for the fermented steam-exploded wheat straw (FSEWS) cultured with Phaneroehaete chrysosporiurn ME-446. Under the optimum conditions of solid-state fermentation (SSF), the degradation amount of lignin reached 60% on the 5th day and the fermented straw residue could be used directly as the material for pulp making. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.